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fore, that the "jugis cultus" here mentioned must be according to the Christian covenant, as we have it unfolded to us in the New Testament." And the place of his [its] sanctuary [domicile, domicilium] was cast down,”—the country in which the true Christian worship had found an asylum, or protection, was cast down, or invaded and desolated by this little horn. As we have determined the host of heaven to be the British nation, so we must also consider Great Britain to be the sanctuary in which the true form of Christian worship found an asylum or protection ; and such it certainly has been long, defending those who set themselves apart from the idolatrous worship of the Romish church “ Defender of the Faith" being one of the titles of its kings. We therefore learn from this prophecy, that by this little horn, at some future time, our country will be invaded and desolated, and its stars, or nobles, cast down, and stamped upon.
“ And an host [an appointed time] was given against the daily [le continuel, jugis cultus] by reason of transgression. The wordt translated in our version “ an host,” may be rendered,
, says 'Bishop Newton, an appointed time;" for the same word in chap. x. 1, of the original in Daniel is so rendered in our Bibles ; and we shall see that the above rendering is in perfect conformity to what we are told in v. 13, the exposition of which we mean to defer till the end of the chapter, as it is from an analysis of this verse that we shall attempt to shew the errors of those interpreters who have attempted to deduce from the number 2300, given in v. 14, the date of the return of the Jews to Palestine. “ And it [the little horn] cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, and prospered.” It seems, then, that the power of which this little horn is typical, takes away the true form of Christian worship even out of the country in which it had found a protection, and practises and prospers in such a way as to do away with the true faith altogether; so that the true Christian worship shall not be followed in a single nation ; which could not be said of the papal power, from whose idolatrous errors, and other vicious derelictions, the kingdom of Great Britain, as we have seen, has been set apart.
In verse 24, we are told that the king of fierce countenance, of which this little horn is typical, shall be mighty, but not by bis own power -another circumstance which combines with the former one of the same little horn standing up against the Prince of princes, to shew that this power is identical with that typified by the scarletcoloured beast in Rev. xvii ; for we are there told, v. 12, that the kings which receive power as kings one hour (mian horam same time, or, for the same length of time*] with the beast, shall give their
power and strength unto the beast. We are also told that the king of fierce countenance shall be broken without hand - that is, in a supernatural manner; and we find that the scarlet-coloured beast, which is typical of the false prophet, was taken in presence of the
the white horse, Rev. xix. 20, and cast, alongst with the beast of whose image he had enforced the worship, alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone -- another circumstance tending still fur
* Bishop Newton.
ther to confirm the identity of this little horn with the scarlet-coloured beast full of names of blasphemy.
Having now analysed all the passages of this eighth chapter of Daniel which concern the locality of the origin of the king of fierce countenance, as well as his acts, we must now proceed to the exposition of the remaining verses, which inform us concerning the time of his rise, and also of the length of the appointed time of triumph that was given him to tread the sanctuary and the host the country in which the true mode of Christian worship had found an asylum, or domicile, and the people of that same country-under foot. “And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.” Transgressors against what, or in what respect, and who are they? the reader will naturally inquire. Now, it must be remembered that the daily, the “jugis cultus," has an appointed time given against it, during which, according to v. 13, as we shall see, the host and the sanctuary are to be trodden under foot, and that this triumph was given to the little horn over this host by reason of transgression. But we have already shewn that the “jugis cultus” in this chapter could neither be the true worship, according to the Mosaic covenant before the time of the preaching of St John, nor the worship of the Jews, as appointed by Ezekiel after their return to the Holy Land, and the advent in glory of our Saviour to their new temple, but must be the true mode of Christian worship as set forth in the New Testament. The last transgression must, therefore, have been against the true Christian faith, and it must have been committed by the nation or host which was punished for the same that is, by. the British nation, as we have shewn ; and, further, it is also evident that the transgression of this nation could not be against the true Christian faith, in favour of any dereliction from it enforced by this little horn, seeing that before his rise the transgressors are said to have been come to the full. Now, if, as we have before shewn reasons for concluding, there be only two Antichristian powers, the papal, and the abomination that maketh desolate, or St Paul's man of sin, the transgression on the part of the British nation must have been committed against the true faith, in favour of the former of these powers. The only transgression committed by the British nation, and it may be a very heinous one in the sight of the Almighty,--is receiving the followers of the papal creed, the worshippers of creatures and images, into its national councils, and thus publicly countenancing the papal as a national religion. What other concessions in favour of popery our country may yet make, are in the womb of futurity. We cannot know when their transgressions are come to the full, and, therefore, cannot determine when this horn shall arise from such a characteristic of the date of its origin.-Before proceeding any farther, we may just observe here in passing, that the last transgression must necessarily have been committed by some pation professing the true Christian faith ; because if it could have been committed by any other nation following the idolatrous creed of popery, then the transgression could not be said to have been come to the full before the rise of this little horn, seeing that in following his apostate and idolatrous form of worship, all nations are said to transgress without exception; for it is said that this little horn “cast down the truth to the ground.”
Let us now proceed to an analysis of the remaining verses, which give us farther information concerning the time of the rise of this king of fierce countenance. “And it came to pass when I, even I, Daniel, had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man.
And I heard a man's voice between the banks of Ulai, which called, and said, Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.” Daniel here certainly gives us to know, that he understood the wbole of wbat he describes between v. 3 and 14 inclusively to be the vision of wbich he asks the meaning ; at least this is the most natural conclusion to be drawn from his words. The interpreting angel, however, as we shall see in our exposition of 6. 17, gives the prophet to understand very differently — viz. that the vision relates to the history of the little horn detailed between v.9 and 14 inclusively - a history which is yet in the womb of time.-A man's voice between the banks of Ulai commissions the angel to explain to Daniel the vision. Probably this is a bint to us that the vision relates to the times mentioned in the twelfth chapter of Daniel, where we find that the man clothed in linen wbich was upon the waters of the river, gives us numerical data for the determination of the rise of the abomination that maketh desolate, which we judge to be identical with the little horn. “ So he [the angel Gabriel] came near where I stood : and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face : but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man ; for at the time of tbe end (au temps marqué, apud tempus constitutum] shall be the vision.” We prefer before ours, the French and Tremellius's Latin versions of this passage. But where, then, are we to find this “ temps marque,” this “ tempus constitutum," at which this vision is said to begin--this history of the little horn? We believe that several hints are furnished to us in the prophetical narrative, to refer us to the tenth, eleventb, and twelfth chapters of Daniel for the determination of this “ tempe marque,” this “ tempus constitutum :” such as the prophet's hearing a man's voice between the banks of Ulai — most probably our Saviour's, commissioning the angel Gabriel to instruct Daniel of the vision, just as the prophet tells us that he heard the voice of the words of the glorious personage,
“ the man clothed in linen which was upon the waters of the river ” Hiddekel ; such as Daniel's falling on his face, and remaining in a deep sleep on his face towards the ground the very things which he describes to have befallen him when he heard the words of the glorious personage, which he describes in chap. X. 5 and 6 ; --all which correspondence of circumstances, we believe, are intended to point out to the faithful reader the coincidence of the date of the beginning of this vision, with those in the twelfth chapter of Daniel. Accordingly, we meet with the very expressions, “temps marque," and "tempus constitutum," at y. 40 of the French and Tremellius's Latin versions. Now, we must consider, that a date in history can be ascertained only by finding at what number of years it is distant from a known era, or some well-known date in profane history. But che formula in Dan. xii. 7 contains the only means of ascertaining the date of any of the events in the narrative of the history of the world which is given us in Daniel, xi., from the third year of Cyrus till the time of the first resurrection ; and we have already shewn, that the only fixed date which can be determined from that formula is the year 1806, the close of the period of the papal supremacy. We cannot see, therefore, how the vision which concerns the little horn, or king of fiercé countenance, can be said to commence at a temps marque, a “ tempus constitutum,” unless its beginning can be determined by means of some given number, together with either the date of the close of the papal period, or the year 1806, or the date of the commencement of the same, the year 546 : for unless it be from either of these dates that the 1290 and 1335 days or years given in Daniel, xii. shall take their beginning, they have no other ascertainable from any data, and the commencement or commencements of these two periods must be indeterminable. But if the date of the rise of this little born is to be determined at all, it must be so from the eleventh verse of the twelfth chapter of Daniel, the interpretation of which we must, therefore, immediately enter upon. “ And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.". The literal rendering of this verse, as far as we can gather, is as follows: And from the time the continual is taken away, to set up the abomination that maketh desolate, a thousand two hundred and ninety days. Now there are two different acts mentioned in this verse -the taking away of the continual or true worship of the time, and the setting up of the abomination that maketh desolate ; and the difficult question in the exposition of this passage is, whether these two acts are synchronous, or happen at the same point of time, in which case no event would mark the close of the 1290 years, — or, whether that period of time lies between the two acts. Certainly it may be said that the continual true worship may be taken away by the mere setting up of the abomination that maketh desolate, in which case the two acts above spoken of would be simultaneous. But we shall best come to a just conclusion concerning the true meaning of the passage in question, by ascertaining, if possible, by what powers the daily, the continual, the "jugis cultus,” is taken away, and “the abomination that maketh desolate” is set up. Now, we are told, Dan. xi. 31, that arms standing in Syria, as we have before explained it, shall take away the “ jugis cultus," the continual true worship, and shall set up the abomination that maketh desolate. The papal power of itself could not, therefore, be said to take away the continual true worship, the “ jagis cultus,” because it never stood in Syria. Justinian the emperor, however, whose dominions extended over Syria, by granting supremacy to the Bishop of Rome, may, perhaps, be said to have taken
away stant true worship. If such can really be said to have been the case, then it is evident that we must date the commencement of the 1290
years from the year 546 a. D., which we have determined to be the commencement of the papal period; and the time for setting up the abomination that maketh desolate must, of course, be the year 1836. But again, the little horn in Daniel, viii., we are told, is to take away the daily, the continual, the "jugis cultus," and to cast down the place of its sanctuary ; so that if the period of 1290 years lie between that taking away of the continual, and setting up the abomination that maketh desolate, then it must necessarily follow that this power is different from the little horn of chapter viii. But if the taking away of the continual true worship by the little horn, and the setting up of the abomination that maketh desolate, be simultaneous events, then no conclusion can be drawn from Dan. xii. 11, concerning the rise of the little horn in the eighth chapter. Unless, therefore, we assign the taking away of the continual true religion to the establishment of the papal power in the year 546, or 1260 years backwards from the year 1806, it is impossible to see how the date of the rise of the little horn, or that of the beginning of the vision of the little born, can be determined; or how that date can be called a “temps marque," or “ tempus constitutum.” The difficulty here is to conceive, how the continual true religion could have been taken away by the establish. ment of the pope's supremacy, and yet have an asylum, and still remain to be taken away by another power, which is to succeed to that of the papal.
may be of great consequence, however, to notice here, that from an expression in Tremellius's Latin version, the little horn in chap. viii. of Daniel does not extend his conquests towards the glory (" le gloire," “ decus”) till some time after his establishment; for it is said, that the little born, v. 9, waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward “decus," v. 10, “ubi magnificavit se," &c. If this little born be the same, then, as the abomination that maketh desolate, and he does not take away the daily, the continual true worship, but by invading the country which here receives the name of glory, it is plain that his taking away of the daily, and his establishment, cannot be synchronous events : and since his establishment precedes his taking away of the daily sacrifice, it cannot be the date of this latter act that is the commencement of the 1290 years ; for this period lies between the taking away of the daily, and the setting up of the abomination that maketh desolate, when these two acts are not synchronous with each other.
Now, as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the groueid; but he touched me, and set me upright: and he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the Jast end of the indignation; for, at the time appointed the end shall be.” Now, it is to be observed, that the prophet bere describes himself to have been in the very predicament in which he was in chap. X., baving been raised from the ground in each of these cases by the angel who reassured him. This in, probably, intended as a hint to lead us to what portion of the narrative of Dan. xi, takes place in the time called “ the last end of the indignation." "Now I am come," says the angel to Da.