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on one side, aud the paper on the other, whence it is dexterously taken up with an instrument in the form of a T, three sheets at a time, and hung on lines to dry. There it hangs for a week or ten days, which likewise further whitens it; and any knots and roughness it may have are picked off carefully by the women. It is then sized. Size is a kind of glue; and without this preparation the paper would not bear ink: it would run and blot as you see it does on grey paper. The sheets are just dipped into the size and taken out again. The exact degree of sizing is a matter of nicety, which can only be known by experience. They are then hung up again to dry, and when dry taken to the finishing-room, where they are examined anew, pressed in the dry-presses, which gives them their last gloss and smoothness; counted up into quires, made up into reams, and sent to the stationer's, from whom we have it, after he has folded it again and cut the edges ; some too he makes to shine like satin, by glossing it with hot plates. The whole process of paper-making takes about three weeks.

H. It is a very curious process, indeed. I shall almost scruple for the future to blacken a sheet of paper with a careless scrawl, now I know how much pains it costs to make it so white and beautiful.

F. It is true that there is hardly anything we use with 80 much waste and profusion as this manufacture ; we should think ourselves confined in the use of it, if we might not tear, disperse, and destroy it in a thousand

ways; so that it is really astonishing whence linen enough can be procured to answer so vast a demand. As to the coarse brown papers, of which an astonishing quantity is used by every shopkeeper in packages, &c., these are made chiefly of oakum, that is, old hempen ropes. In China a fine paper is made of silk.

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name.

H. I have heard lately of woven paper; pray what is that? They cannot weave paper, surely ? F. Your question is very natural.

very natural. In order to answer it, I must desire you to take a sheet of

common

paper,

and hold it up against the light. Do you not see some marks in it ?

H. I see a great many white lines running along lengthways,

like ribs, and smaller that cross them. I see, too, letters and the figure of a crown.

F. These are all the marks of the wires; the thickness of the wires prevents so much of the pulp lying upon the sheets in those places, consequently wherever the wires are the paper is thinner, and you see the light through more readily, which gives that appearance of white lines. The letters too are worked in the wire, and are the maker's

Now to prevent these lines which take off from the beauty of the paper, particularly of drawing paper, there have been used moulds of brass wire, exceedingly fine, of equal thickness, and woven or latticed one within another; the marks therefore of these are easily pressed out, so as to be hardly visible; if you look at this sheet you will see it is quite smooth.

H. It is so.

F. I should mention to you, that there is a discovery very lately made, by which they can make paper equal to any in whiteness of the coarsest brown rags, and even of dyed cottons; which they have till now been obliged to throw by for inferior purposes. This is by means of man. ganese, a sort of mineral, and oil of vitriol; a mixture of which they just pass through the pulp while it is in water, for otherwise it would burn it, and it in an instant discharges the colours of the dyed cloths, and bleaches the brown to a beautiful whiteness.

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H. That is like what you told me before of bleaching cloth in a few hours.

F. It is indeed founded upon the same discovery. The paper made of these brown rags is likewise more valuable, from being very tough and strong, almost like parchment. Also a good deal of paper is now made of straw.

H. When was the making of paper found out ?

F. It is a disputed point, but probably in the fourteenth century. The invention has been almost equal to that of printing itself; and shows how the arts and sciences, like children of the same family, assist each other.

They are then hung up again to dry, and when dry taken to the finishing-room, where they are examined anew, pressed in the dry-presses, which gives them their last gloss and smoothness; counted up into quires, made up into reams, and sent to the stationer's, from whom we have it, after he has folded it again and cut the edges; some too he makes to shine like satin, by glossing it with hot plates. The whole process of paper-making takes about three weeks.

THE VILLAGE PREACHER. NEAR yonder copse, where once the garden smiled, And still where many a garden-flower grows wild ; There, where a few torn shrubs the place disclose, The village preacher's modest mansion rose. A man he was, to all the country dear, And passing rich with forty pounds a year; Remote from towns he ran his godly race, Nor e'er had changed, nor wished to change, his place; Far other aims his heart had learnt to prize,

More bent to raise the wretched than to rise.
His house was known to all the vagrant train,
He chid their wanderings, but relieved their pain;
The long-remembered beggar was his guest,
Whose beard descending swept his aged breast;
The broken soldier, kindly bade to stay,
Sat by his fire, and talked the night away,
Wept o'er his wounds, or tales of sorrow done,
Shoulder'd his crutch, and showed how fields were won.
Pleased with his guests, the good man learn’d to glow,
And quite forgot their vices in their woe;
Careless their merits or their faults to scan,
His pity gave ere charity began.

Thus to relieve the wretched was his pride,
And e'en his failings leaned to virtue's side ;
But in his duty prompt at every call,
He watched and wept, he prayed and felt for all;
And, as a bird each fund endearment tries
To tempt its new-fledged offspring to the skies,
He tried each art, reproved each dull delay,
Allured to brighter worlds, and led the way.

At church, with meek and unaffected grace,
His looks adorned the venerable place;
Truth from his lips prevailed with double sway,
And fools, who came to scoff, returned to pray.
The service past, around the pious man,
With steady zeal, each honest rustic ran ;
E'en children followed with endearing wile,
And plucked his gown to share the good man's smile.
His ready smile a parent's warmth expressed;
Their welfare pleased him, and their cares distressed :
To them his heart, his love, his griefs were given,
But all his serious thoughts had rest in heaven.

ARITHMETIC. COMPOUND RULES (Common Weights and Measures).

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