Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures
The Encyclopaedia fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural stud ies. Reference works on other cultures tend either to omit science completely or pay little attention to it, and those on the history of science almost always start with the Greeks, with perhaps a mention of the Islamic world as a trans lator of Greek scientific works. The purpose of the Encyclopaedia is to bring together knowledge of many disparate fields in one place and to legitimize the study of other cultures' science. Our aim is not to claim the superiority of other cultures, but to engage in a mutual exchange of ideas. The Western aca demic divisions of science, technology, and medicine have been united in the Encyclopaedia because in ancient cultures these disciplines were connected. This work contributes to redressing the balance in the number of reference works devoted to the study of Western science, and encourages awareness of cultural diversity. The Encyclopaedia is the first compilation of this sort, and it is testimony both to the earlier Eurocentric view of academia as well as to the widened vision of today. There is nothing that crosses disciplinary and geographic boundaries, dealing with both scientific and philosophical issues, to the extent that this work does. xi PERSONAL NOTE FROM THE EDITOR Many years ago I taught African history at a secondary school in Central Africa.
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a/so Aboriginal Abu'l-Wafa Africa agriculture al-DIn algebra Almagest American ancient Arabic areas arithmetic armillary sphere Aryabhata Asia astrolabe astrology astronomical Aztec Baghdad Brahmagupta calendar called Cambridge celestial century China Chinese Chinese Mathematics circle colonial construction crops culture Delhi developed dynasty early earth East eclipses environment equations Ethnobotany Europe European example geography geomancy geometry Greek History human Hunayn Ibn al-Haytham Ibn al-Shatir Ibn Yunus important Inca India Indian indigenous instruments irrigation Islamic Islamic astronomy Japanese Kitab knowledge known land Latin lunar Malay manuscripts mathematicians mathematics Maya medicine medieval Mesoamerica method modern moon Muhammad Muslim native nature observations original period philosophical plants practice problems production REFERENCES scholars scientific societies solar species sphere stars Sulba Sutra techniques texts Thabit Thabit ibn Qurra theory tion traditional translation treatise University Press West Western Yolngu