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they come unto me; and I judge between a man and his

neighbor, and I make them know 18the statutes of God, and 17 his laws. And Moses' father-in-law said unto him, The 18 thing that thou doest is not good. 14Thou wilt surely wear

away, both thou, and this people that is with thee : for the

thing is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to perform it 19 thyself alone. Hearken now unto my voice, I will give thee

counsel, and God be with thee : be thou for the people to 20 God-ward, and bring thou the causes unto God : and thou

(Rd) shalt teach löthem the statutes and the laws, and shalt

shew them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must 21 (E) do.* Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people

able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating unjust gain

and place such over them, to be 16rulers of thousands, rulers 22 of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens, and let them

judge the people at all seasons : and it shall be, that every great matter they shall bring unto thee, but every small

matter they shall judge themselves : so shall it be easier for 23 thyself, and they shall bear [the burden) with thee. If thou

shalt do this thing, and God command thee so, then thou

shalt be able to endure, and all this people also shall "go to 24 their place in peace. So Moses hearkened to the voice of 25 his father-in-law, and did all that he had said. And Moses

chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over

the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of 26 fifties, and rulers of tens. And they judged the people at all

seasons: the hard causes they brought unto Moses, but 27 every small matter they judged themselves. 18 And Moses

let his father-in-law depart ; and he went his way into his

own land. 19 (P) In the third month after the children of Israel were gone

forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the

13Ch. 21.

14 Dt. 1 : 12-18. 15Gen. 31 : 55; Ex. 20 : 25 ; Nu. 21 : 3.
18Ct. Nu. 10:29-32.

112 : 40f. 51 : 16: 1.

16Dt. 1: 15. 1732 :

34 ; 23 : 2off.

* Vs. 2ob. goes beyond the intention of the chapter to impute to Moses moral instruction, clearly manifesting the Deuteronomic interest. Probably an interpolation of Rd.

wilderness of Sinai.--And when they were departed from Rephi- 2 dim, and were come to the wilderness of Sinai, they pitched in the (J) wilderness ;-*and there Israel camped before the (E) mount. ?And Moses went up unto God,—and | Yah- 3 weh called unto him out of the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel ; (Rd) :Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how 41 bare you 4 on eagles' wings, and brought you unto myself. Now therefore, if ye will 5 5obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a Speculiar treasure unto me from among all peoples : for all the earth is mine : and 6 (E)

ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and "an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel. And Moses came and called for the elders of the 7 people, and set before them all these words which Yahweh commanded him. And all the people answered together, 8 and said, All that Yahweh hath spoken we will do. And Moses reported the words of the people unto Yahweh.—And 9 Yahweh said unto Moses, Lo, I come unto thee in a thick cloud, 'that the people may hear when I speak with thee, (Rd) and may also lobelieve thee for ever. And Moses told the words of the people unto Yahweh. And Yahweh said unto Moses, | 10


320 : 22 ; Jos. 24:7. 4Dt. 32 : 11. 623 : 22. 6Dt. 7:6; 14 ; 2 ; 26:18; 2 Sam 122 · 31. Dt. 26: 19.824 : 3, 7 ; Jos. 24 : 16, etc. °20 : 19-21. 1014 : 31.


* The order of xix I., and za seems to have been inverted, perhaps (Jül). to connect better with the material taken from J, or because of the presence of material from this source in vs. 2a.

† The position which the passage 3b (from “and Yahweh ”)—8 seems to demand for itself (see Analysis p. 97) is directly after xx. 21 ; cf. Dt. v. 28–31, where, however, quite different language is attributed to Yahweh. Vs. 8 presents Moses in the position required in xix. 17, 19; XX. I-21 and presupposed nowhere else; for 8b is not to be understood as signifying an ascent of the mountain. In removing the passage from its original position to the present, to form a sort of preamble to the theophany, Rd has modified the language in vv. 4-6 ; cf. xxiii. 22, where LXX. insert vv. 5f. between 22a and b.

Vs. gb. appears to be mere scribal error, a dittograph of 8b. The interruption compels R to supply : “ And Yahweh said unto Moses” in repetition of ga as in ga the subject “ Yahweh ” (for simple “he" understood) had to be supplied, after vv. 3b-8 were introduced separating za from vs. 9.

(E) Go unto the people, and lisanctify them to-day and to11 morrow, and let them wash their garments, and be ready

(J) against the third day:-for the third day Yahweh will

1 come down in the sight of all the people upon mount 12 13Sinai. 4 And thou shalt set bounds unto the people

round about, saying, Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it:

whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to 13 death : no hand shall touch him, but he shall surely

be stoned, or shot through; whether it be 15beast or

man, it shall not live; when the 16trumpet soundeth 14 (E) long, they shall come up to the mount.— * 17And

Moses went down from the mount unto the people, and sanc15 tified the people ; and they washed their garments.' And

he said unto the people, Be ready against the third day : 16 come not near a woman. And it came to pass on the third

day, when it was morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a 18thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of a

trumpet exceeding loud ; 19and all the people that were in 17 the camp trembled. And Moses brought forth the people

out of the camp to meet God; and they stood at the nether 18 (J) part of the mount. And mount Sinai was altogether

on smoke, because Yahweh descended upon it in fire: 20 and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a

33 : 2.

13Vv. 20; 34 : 2, 4 ;

Dt. 11Vs. 14f.; Gen. 35: 2. 12 Gen. 11: 5, 7; Ex. 3:8 etc.

16Ct. vv. 16, 19.

17 Vs. 10. 14Vv. 21-24 ; 24 : 2 ; 34 : 3. 1512 : 38; 17:3; 34: 3. 33 : 96. 1920 : 18-21. 20Gen. 15 : 17 ; 19:28.

18Vs. 9;

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* Vs. 13 imperatively requires an antecedent for the emphatic hemmah these," who in contrast with the people, “shall come up.” As the people are to be kept away, the privileged individuals can be only those referred to in vv. 22, 24, “Moses and Aaron and the priests ” (see note on vs. 24, and cf. xxiv, If., 9-11). We find ourselves in fact in vv. II-13 in the midst of the preliminary interview of Moses with Yahweh (there is no need to suppose more than one interview) in which Moses receives directions in preparation for the approaching theophany, which in J may have been on the morrow (cf. viii. 9, 23, etc.) instead of “the third day,” vs. II. (E). Now this is precisely the condition of affairs in vv. 2off.; and here, viz. after 24a, “thou, and Aaron with thee, and the priests,” we discover the original position of vv. 11-13, whose removal has made necessary the curious interpolation vs. 23.

furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly.* (E) And when the voice of the trumpet waxed louder and 19 louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by a voice. (J) 21 And Yahweh came down upon mount Sinai, to the 20 top of the mount: and Yahweh called Moses to the top of the mount; and Moses went up. And Yahweh said 21 unto Moses, Go down, charge the people, lest they break through unto Yahweh to gaze, and many of them perish. And let the priests also, which come 22 near to Yahweh, sanctify themselves, lest Yahweh (Rje) 24break forth upon them. And Moses said unto Yah. 23 weh, The people cannot come up to mount Sinai: for thou 25didst charge us, saying, Set bounds about the mount, and sanctify it. And Yahweh 24 (J) said unto him, Go, get thee down; † and thou shalt come up, Bthou, and Aaron with thee : but let not the priestst and the people break through to come up unto Yahweh, lest he break forth upon them. So Moses went 25 down unto the people, and told them. $ [...]

21Vv. 11, 18 ; Gen. 11:5, etc. 32Ct. vv. 16f. 234 : 14 ; 24:1; 32 : 29 ; Ct. vv.6, 19, 17 ; 24:

241 : 12; Gen. 30 : 30, 43 ; 38, 9; 2Sam. 5:20 ; 6:8, etc. 25Vv. 12f. 2624 : 1f. 9-11.

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* The order 20a, 18, 20b is preferred by some critics. † Vs. 23 in the present connection has almost the character of an imperti

No attention whatever is paid to it in what follows, save that the thread of discourse in 24a is resumed where interrupted (cf. vs. 21). The obvious occasion for the interpolation (see note on vv. II-13) fully accounts for its origin.

[Insert at this point vv. II-13, and translate with Kuenen (Theol. Tijdschr. xv. p. 177) “thou, and Aaron with thee, and the priests; but let not the people,” etc. This involves no change in the original text, but only in the Massoretic accentuation. This sense is imperatively required by vs. 22, “ the priests which come near to Yahweh.” Cf. also xxiv. 1f., 9f.

§ Literally “said unto them ”. The sentence breaks off unfinished.

S IV. Ex. xx.-NUM. X.



The great mass of this section is formed by the priestly legislation, whose foundation is the sacred Tabernacle of the Testimony, built at Sinai “according to the pattern shown in the mount.” It is manifest from xxv. 16, 21; xxxi. 18 a (P2) that the priestly law-book contained its own version of the Ten Words, and of this a trace perhaps remains in xx. II which is either from the hand of P2 or from Rp. But the supreme interest of this document is the institution and construction of the Tabernacle ; for with its construction, the preparation of its furniture, consecration of its priesthood, its occupation by the Shekinah, and the lighting from heaven of its fires of perpetual sacrifice the worship of Israel is supposed to begin. Previously there is no trace of priest, or altar, or ritual. Only in the narrative of JE do the patriarchs sacrifice or build altars. All this is reserved in Pfor elaborate institution by divine fiat at Sinai. Now with what laborious delight does the priestly author set himself to his task! Every detail of the Jerusalem temple and its elaborate ritual is reproduced on a scale adapted to the supposed requirements of the wilderness. Even the great brazen altar which Ahaz had built after the pattern he brought from Damascus (II Kings. xvi. 10-16) must have its counterpart before the Tabernacle of the Congregation ; only, as adapting it for transportation, in Exodus xxvii. iff., it is to be made of wood (!) and merely overlaid with brass. The author carries his imitation of the Jerusalem temple in the arrangements of its portable counterpart so far as to speak of the north, south, east and west sides of the Tabernacle (xxvi. 18, 20, 22; xxvii. 9, 11ff., etc.) although no orientation of the sacred tent is anywhere prescribed, and the very terms he employs (“ seaward” for west, “ desertward” for south, etc.) prove that his point of view is Palestine. After describing in almost incredibly elaborate detail all the minutiae of specifications for construction in chh. XXV-xxxii., we are treated to five more chapters (xxxv-xl.) for the most part

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