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Thereafter followed the account of the institution of the 70 endowed with the spirit of prophecy combined with the opening sentences of Moses' complaint of the burden of the people (cf. Dt. i. 6ff.) The story of the stay at Sinai-Horeb concluded with the noble intercession of Moses, finally prevailing upon Yahweh to go personally in their midst, xxxiii. 12-23; xxxiv. 6-9 (J). By this arrangement nothing of importance was omitted save the Words of the Covenant,” xxxiv. 1-5, 10-28 (J), and even of these a part was taken up, either at this time or later, into “ the Book of the Covenant xx. 22–26; xxiii. 10-33 (E), which in Rje's work described the renewal of the covenant, as the exigencies of the history required, before the departure from Horeb.
It seems to have been the work of Rd to reincorporate with JE the Words of the Covenant eliminated as duplicate by Rje. We find as the lower limit of time to which this process can be referred the passage, Dt. x. l-11, in which, however, ch. xxxiv. has perhaps not yet obtained its final position (cf. Dt. X. Iof. ) nor its present shape exactly (Dt. X. 1-5 has the plus, “ And make thee an ark of wood”. “and put them in the ark
so I made an ark of acacia wood “and put the tables in the ark,” all of which must, of course, have been stricken out by Rp as incompatible with P2's account of the ark of gold). The Rd therefore to whom the reincorporation of Ex. xxxiv. is assigned must be earlier than Dt. x. Nevertheless the style and interest of the redactor whose hand appears in the ch. itself, and in the passages affected by its reincorporation, is so thoroughly Deuteronomic, that we have no choice but to refer the process to one of this school. It is clear, however, that in the time of Dt. X. 1-11, E's account of the renewal of the covenant had been superseded by J's story of the giving of the Words of the Covenant, the latter, in the present form of a renewal, being perhaps preferred on account of its presenting the tables of stone as still preserved (Dt. x. 5) whereas E's narrative left them shattered on the steeps of Horeb. This reincorporation was not effected without displacement, and while it would be foolhardy to attempt to state in detail what the process was, it is safe to maintain that it gave to Ex. xxxiii f., practically and as a whole, its present character of an intercession on Moses' part with Yahweh, resulting in the renewal of the covenant and rewriting (by Yahweh cf. Dt. x. 4) of the tables. But two accounts of the renewal of the covenant, E's (xx. 22-26; xxiii. 10–33 ; xxiv. 3-8) and J's (ch. xxxiv) could not stand side by side. If both were preserved one must retire to a position before the apostasy in order to avoid the glaring absurdity of two consecutive ratifications of the same covenant between Yahweh and Israel. In addition to E's Book of the Covenant, in order to bring ch. xxxiv. into the intended relation to ch. xxxii., Rd had to find a new place for other incidents of ch. xxxiii., including Jethro's visit, Ex. xviii. (E); the appointment of the 70 (with which went a seemingly connected verse or two of J), Num. xi. 10c12, 14-17, 24-30 (JE); the rebellion of Miriam and Aaron, Num. xii. (E); most of which passages are more or less marked by Rd's hand. But the account of how the Tent of Meeting was constructed from the ornaments stripped off, Ex. xxxiii. 4, 6. (E) and of Moses' practise in regard to the Tent, had, of course, to remain, as the story of Moses' depositing there the
ark of wood ” with the tables of stones” came just after. Doubtless the process of readjustment was a slow one. It was not complete when Dt. i. 6ff. was written, and we cannot pretend to say how, or when, it finally brought these passages into their present position. Only, after ch. xxxiv. was taken up in its present character the disturbing element was present to exert a continuous pressure in this direction until the present order became fixed.
Rp's work is less difficult to define. He found the account of the construction of the Tent of Meeting after xxxiii. 6 in his way and struck it out, retaining, however, in a most commendably conservative spirit vv. 7 -11, in spite of incongruities. To round off a little the broken edges of xxxii. 4, 6 he made a kind of ending out the adjoining material in vs. 5. In ch. xxxiv. he was, of course obliged to strike out the parts relating to the wooden ark, perhaps adding vs. 4a. in place of the material referred to by Dt. x. 1-5. At the end of the Words of the Covenant he attached the midrash 29–34, leading over to P2's account of the building of the Tabernacle, and resuming xxxii. 15 in such a way as to connect the P narrative, which of course had no story of apostasy, with that of the renewal of the covenant.
(J) And Yahweh spake unto Moses, Depart, igo up 33 hence, thou and the 'people which thou hast brought up out of the land of Egypt, unto the land of which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, say(Rd) ing, Unto thy seed will I give it : 4and I will send an angel before thee; and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, and (J) the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite: bunto a 3 land flowing with milk and honey : €for I will not go up in the midst of thee; for thou art a istiffnecked
132 : 34. 232 : 7. Gen. 12:7; 26:3; 28: 13. 423 : 20 ; 23 : 32,34. 63:8, 17; 13:5; Nu. 13:27 ; 16:13f. 634 :9; vv. 14-16. 732 : 10 ; 34:9.
4 (E) people : lest I consume thee in the way. And
when the people heard 8these evil tidings, they mourned : 5 (Rp) and no man did put on him his 'ornaments. And Yah
weh said unto Moses, Say unto the children of Israel, Ye are a stiffnecked people : if I go up into the midst of thee for one moment, I shall consume thee ;
therefore now put off thy ornaments from thee, that I may know what to do 6 (E) unto thee
And the children of Israel stripped themselves of their ornaments from omount Horeb onward.* 7 Now Moses used to take the tent and to pitch it with
out the camp, afar off from the camp ; and he called it, The tent of meeting. And it came to pass, that every one
which l’sought Yahweh went out unto the tent of meeting, 8 which was without the camp. And it came to pass, when
Moses went out unto the Tent, that all the people rose up,
and stood, every man at his tent door, and looked after 9 Moses, until he was gone into the Tent. And it came to
pass, when Moses entered into the Tent, 14the pillar of cloud 10 descended, and stood at the door of the Tent : and [Yah
weh] spake with Moses. And all the people saw the pillar
of cloud stand at the door of the Tent: and all the people Il rose up and worshipped, every man at his tent door. 15 And
Yahweh spake unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend. And he turned again into the camp : 16but his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, "de
parted not out of the Tent.t 832 : 33f. ; Nu. 14:39. 912 : 35f. 103:1; 17:6. 11 Nu, u: 169., 24-30 ; ct. Ex. 25ff. ; Nu. 2 ff. 1218 : 15, 19; 22 :9, etc. 13Vs. 10; Nu. 11:10. 1413 : 21f.; 14: 19f. ; Nu. 11 : 25 ; 12 : 5. 15 Nu. 12:6-8. 1624 : 13 ; Nu. 11 : 28. 1713 : 22 ; * The interpolation of vs. 2 is of a stereotyped character and scarcely needs
It is apparent from vs. 12 that the “angel ” comes also from the hand of the interpolator, who seems to have had xxiii. 23 and xxxiv. 11 before his eye. In vs. 5 the stripping off of the ornaments is not a spontaneous token of grief from the people but is done at the command of Yahweh. The verse merely repeats vs. 3b, and puts in the form of a divine command the statement of the context. Apparently it was a very late piece of redactional work; for LXX. have, “ See that I do not bring upon you another stroke and consume you; now therefore put away the garments of your glory and your adornment and I will show thee what I will do to thee.” For the connection after xxxiii. 6, see Analysis above.
† Vv. 7-11 were not originally written to stand above. The verbs of vv. 7
(J) [.. ]* And Moses said unto Yahweh, See thou 12 18sayest unto me, Bring up this people: and thou hast not let me know whom thou wilt send with me. Yet thou hast said, I know thee by name, and thou hast also found grace in my sight. Now therefore, I 13 pray thee, if I have found grace in thy sight, shew me now thy ways, that I may know thee, to the end that I may find grace in thy sight: and consider that this nation is thy people. And he said, My presence 14 shall go (with thee) and “I will give thee rest. And 15 he said unto him, If thy presence go not (with me,] carry us not up hence. For wherein now shall it be 16 known that I have found grace in thy sight, I and thy people? is it not in that thou goest with us, so that we be separated, I and thy people, from all the people that are upon the face of the earth? [... ] And Yahweh said unto Moses, I will do this thing 17 also that thou hast spoken : for thou hast found grace in my sight, and I know thee by name. And he 18 said, Shew me, I pray thee, thy glory. 24 And he said, 19 I will make all my goodness pass before thee, and will proclaim the name of Yahweh before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will
18Vv. 1-3 ; Nu. 11 : 12. 19Vv. 17f. 20 Gen. 6:8; 19: 19; 32 : 5 ; 33:8, 10, 15 ; 34: 11 ; 39:4; 47:25, 29; 50:4, etc. 2134 : 9. 22 Nu. 11 : uf. 25Vs. 12 and refs. 2434 : 6f. II are indeed in the tense indicative of continued past action, but it must be apropos of something that the space relations are thus depicted, and that we are told of Moses' turning again into the camp, while Joshua remains behind. What this missing occasion for the explanation is, appears clearly enough when we connect after vs. 11 the next following E passage, Num. xi. 16f., 2430. (See Analysis, and Art. iv).
* It is apparent that some words of reassurance from Yahweh to Moses are missing before vs. 12, for they are referred to in 12b. Vs. 14 as above translated would be utterly premature, and indeed the whole passage, 12-23; xxxiv. 6-9, in well-nigh hopeless disorder. To make sense of this confusion, it would be needful with Dillmann to transpose vv. 14-16 after xxxiv. 9 and then after the passage from Nu. xi. insert xxxiii. 17, 12f., 20-23, 18f. A far simpler cure for the confusion is to assume, as above, a gap before vs. 12 and translate vs. 14 with Kautzsch as a question. (See Part II.)
20 shew mercy on whom I will shew mercy. And he
said, thou canst not see my face: for man shall not 21 see me and live. And Yahweh said, Behold there is
a place by me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock : 22 and it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth
by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and
will cover thee with my hand until I have passed by: 23 and I will take away mine hand, and thou shalt see
my back: but my face shall not be seen. 34–And * Yahweh said unto Moses, Hew thee atwo
(Rd) tables of stone like unto the first: and I will write upon the 2 (J) tables the words that were on the first tables, which thou brakest. And
be ready by the morning, and come up in the morn
ing unto mount Sinai, and present thyself there to 3 me on the top of the mount. And no man shall
come up with thee, neither let any man be seen
throughout all the mount; neither let the 'flocks 4 (Rp) nor herds feed before that mount.
re that mount. And he hewed (J) two tables of stone like unto the first ; † and Moses rose up 25Vs. 13 ; Gen. 32 : 30. 2634 : 6.
2Ct. 24 : 12 ; 31: 18; 32 : 15f. 419:11, 18, 20, 23 ; vs. 4. 519 : 20. 619:12f., 21, 24 ; 24 : 2. 712 : 38 ; 19:13.
* Insert xxxiv. 1-5, 10-28 after xxiv. II (See above, Analysis p. 148). The removal, if effected already by Rje, was doubtless for the sake of preserving this invaluable material, which could not stand alongside of ch. xx., but could be introduced as a renewal of the covenant, the proper renewal according to E (xx. 22 -26, xxiii. 10–33), being forced back to its present place. We adopt, however, in our Analysis, the theory of Cornill (Einleitung, p. 82) that ch. xxxiv. is a reincorporation by Rd.
† The harmonistic touches in vv. I and 4 have already been discussed (see Analysis, p. 148). The first clause of vs. 4 is, however, not included under the evidence cited. On account of the absence of the article in 4b (“ two tables of stone”); of the phrase rose up early in the morning ” (frequent in E, but cf. viii. 20; ix. 13, J), and of the repetition of the subject “ Moses ” in 4b, Budde and others have claimed a trace of E in this verse. If the claim be admitted, it goes to show that E had an account of renewal of the tables, as well as of the covenant. But Dt. x. I shows that there has been omission here, so that in . any case 4a is only a synopsis of the original. As the clause itself is quite superfluous
us and E has no monopoly of “rose up early in the morning ” (cf. I Sam. xxix. 10, J. Bud.) it seems much more probable that 4a is a substitute by Rp for the missing J material than a fragment of E.