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early in the morning, and went up unto mount Sinai as Yahweh had commanded him, and took in his hand two tables of 'stone. And Yahweh lodescended 5 in the cloud, and stood with him there, and "proclaimed the name of Yahweh.* And Yahweh passed 6 by before him, and 18proclaimed, Yahweh, Yahweh, a God full of compassion and gracious, slow to anger and plenteous in mercy and truth ; keeping mercy 7 for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression (Rd) and sin : land that will by no means clear [the guilty;] visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's child(J) ren, upon the third and upon the fourth generation. And Moses 8 mnade haste, and 16bowed his head toward the earth and worshipped. And he said, If now I have found 9 grace in thy sight, 10 Lord, let the Lord, I pray thee, go in the midst of us; for it is a 18stiffnecked people; and pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us for thine inheritance. I [...] And She 10

8Vs. 2 and refs. 9Vs. I and refs. 1019: 18, 20. 11Gen. 4: 26, etc. 1233 : 22 ; ct vs. 5. 1333 : 19.

14 Nu. 14 : 18. 1523:21; 32 : 34 ; Jos. 24 : 19 ; cf. Ex: 20 : 5. 164:31 ; 12:27. 174 : 10, 13 ; Gen. 15 : 2. 1832 :9; 33 : 3. 19Vs. 6f.

* In vs. 5 translate with margin, “ And he stood with him there and called upon the name of Yahweh.” (See Analysis.)

† “ Plenteous ” (vs. 6, cf. Nu. xiv. 18) occurs only in post-exilic writings, but 6, 7a cannot be rejected save by rejecting also xxxiii. 19. The portion above assigned to Rd represents the minimum. Cf. Part II. Vs. 7bc seems to be partly intended to harmonize vs. 6, 7a with E (ct. xxiii. 21 ; xxxii. 33; Jos. xxiv. 19, E), and is framed on the model of xx. 5.

| Vv. 6-9 belong after xxxiii. 23 (see Analysis). Vs. 5 (misunderstood) furnished a point of attachment for this narrative of the Words of the Covenant, whose earlier verses accordingly were inserted before vs. 6. In vs. 9 Dillmann emends nehitham, “be our Guide,” for nehaltham, “take us for thine inheritance.”

§ The code of Ex. xxxiv., like every other section throughout the Pentateuch devoted to ritual law, has undergone a drastic revision and interpolation; and in this the hand of Rd is specially apparent. The danger of corruption to idolatry by "the inhabitants of the land” (vv. Ub., 12, 15f.) is the dominant idea with the Deuteronomist and his followers. " Jealousy for Yahweh ” (vs. 14b Rje (?); cf. xx. 5 and Jos xxiv. 19) is the keynote of the great reformation of Elijah, which, when mature, swept both Ephraim and Judah with revo(Rd) said, Behold I make a covenant: before all thy people I will do marvels, such as have not been 20 wrought in all the earth, nor

in any nation: and all the people among which thou art shall see the work 11 of Yahweh, for it is a terrible thing that I do with thee. Observe thou

that which I command thee this day : behold, I drive out before thee the

Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the 12 Hivite, and the Jebusite. ?3Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a cove

nant with the inhabitants of the land whither thou goest, lest it be for a 13 snare in the midst of thee : 24but ye shall break down their altars, and dash 14 in pieces their pillars, and ye shall cut down their Asherim : for

(J) "thou shalt worship no other god : "for Yah

weh, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God: 15 (Rd) ?ilest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and

they go a whoring after their gods, and do sacrifice unto their gods, and 16 one call thee and thou eat of his sacrifice; and thou take of their daugh

ters unto thy sons, and their daughters go a whoring after their gods, and 17 (J) make thy sons go a whoring after their gods. 28Thou shalt 18 make thee no molten gods.—29The feast of unleav

ened bread, shall thou keep. Seven days thou 20 Nu. 16: 30 ; cf. Gen. 1: 1. 21 Jos. 2 : 10f ; 5: 1;9:24, etc. 2223 : 23f, 31b-33 ; 33: 2. 2323 : 32f ; Nu. 33 : 55; Jud. 2:1-18. 2423 : 24 ; Nu. 33 : 52.

2620 : 5; Jos. 24 : 27Vs. 12 ; Jud. 2 :17. 2820 : 4, 23. 2923 : 15. lution, (I Kgs. xix. 10, 14-18; II Kgs. xf.). But the abolition of the local altars, bamoth, asherim, and maççeboth (“ pillars ”), (vs. 13) belongs to the iconoclastic revolution of Josiah and the Deuteronomic requirement. The Mosaism of J and E simply rebaptizes these objects of the popular worship into “memorials” of the patriarchs (cf. Genesis passim), though J seems already to avoid mention of the maççeboth, and lifts a protest against the “molten,” or “graven ” image, while E rejects both these and the teraphim. Apart from the interruption which vv. Lib, 12f., 15f., 24 occasion in the series of “Ten Words” (vs. 28), it would be an anachronism, in defiance of the whole attitude of J and E toward the ancient shrines and sacred objects, not to recognize that these verses belong to the later Deuteronomic period of reform in which iconoclasm took the place of toleration or accommodation. In vs. 10 the lateness of the interpolation is evidenced by the language (bara, “create "). It reflects also the Deuteronomic conceptions. In vs. 18, “as I commanded thee,” we have a manifest comment of J himself upon the code he incorporates, and very possibly in vs. 14b also. Vs. 20, with its provisions of redemption in modification of the law of firstlings, may well be from his hand, or at least from some very early interpolator. For this reason no change is made in the type, though clearly the unusual length of the law of firstlings and of the feast of unleavened bread is against the original standing of 18b and 20 in the Code. The interpolations of vs. 23f. require special consideration. (See note in loc.)

2520 : 3, 23.



shalt eat unleavened bread, as I commanded thee, at the time appointed in the month A bib: for in the month Abib thou camest out from Egypt.* _ All that openeth the 19 (Rd) (J) womb is mine; and all thy cattle that is male, † the firstlings of ox and sheep. And the firstling of an 20 ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb: and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck. All the first-born of thy sons thou shalt redeem. 82 And none shall appear before me empty. Six days thou 21 shalt work, but on the seventh day thou shalt rest : in plowing time and in harvest thou shalt rest. 34 And thou shalt observe the feast of weeks, [even) of 22 the first fruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of (Rd) ingathering at the year's end. 8 Three times in the 23 year shall all thy males appear before the Lord Yahweh, the God of Israel. 24 For I will cast out nations before thee, and enlarge thy borders : neither shall any man desire thy land, when thou goest up to appear before Yahweh (J) thy God three times in the year. I 36Thou shalt not offer the 25 3013: 4-7. 3113: 12f. ; 22 : 29f. 3223: 15. 33 20 : 8f ; 23: 10-12.

3423 : 16.

3523 : 14, 17. 3623 : 189.

* Vs. 18 belongs of course between vv. 21 and 22 (cf. xxiii. 15f.). The removal may have been made for the sake of attaching the law of firstlings (vs. 19f.), which were offered at the feast of unleavened bread, with the law for the observance of the feast.

† Vs. 19ba misunderstands 19a which has no reference to first-born sons (cf. Jer. xix. 5) and the language (“male ”) is post-exilic. The special cases, first-born sons and first-born of asses are provided for (by J ?) in vs. 20. The last clause of the verse should be preceded only by a

The Hebrew has simply, “nor let them (i. e. the first-born) appear empty (unredeemed) before me (i. e. in the sanctuary).” LXX. and Vulg. have, “ appear thou.”

Vv. 23 and 24 are probably not from the same hand. Vs. 23 is of course merely supplementary, but of comparatively late origin, perhaps imported from xxiji. 14, whither (xxiii. 17) it has itself in return been at a still later time exported back. Vs. 24, however, has a curious motive. Going up to appear before Yahweh was of course in the early legislation and practise a very simple matter (I Sam. 1. 3), since the local sanctuary was easily accessible, within a mile or two of every peasant. But with the abolition of the local bamoth the requirement, “ Three times in the year shall all thy males go up to appear before Yahweh” acquired a new and extraordinary sense. Previous to the


39Vs. 10.

blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread; neither

shall the sacrifice of the feast of the passover be left 26 unto the morning. The first of the firstfruits of thy

ground thou shalt bring unto the house of Yahweh

thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's 27 milk. 37And Yahweh said unto Moses, Write thou

these words : for 3 after the tenor of these words 39 I

have made a covenant with thee and with Israel. 28 *' And he was there with Yahweh forty days and forty

nights; and he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables 42 the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.*37Ct. vs. 1 ; cf. 24 :4. 38Gen. 43 : 7.

4024 : 18. 41 Vs. 27 ; ct. vs. 1. 4224 : 4. deportation of the ten tribes it would have been in fact a palpable impossibility. Even in the little kingdom of Josiah and of the Restoration a journey of all the male inhabitants three times a year to Jerusalem was a formidable requirement, as its enforcement would leave the land helpless before invaders. In face of this difficulty, as in several similar cases, the Deuteronomic reformers fell back upon religious faith. God would take away from the hearts of their enemies the desire to take advantage of their obedience to his prescription. No man should desire their land when they went up three times

The same unpractical but sublime faith moved the Jews of the Maccabaean period to offer no resistance to invaders on the Sabbath.

* Translate with margin “the Ten Words,” perhaps a gloss. The version of the Ten Words here given is probably older than that of ch. xx., where the laws of the second table are ethical. It differs from its closer parallel, xx. 22– 26; xxiii. 10–33, principally in the omission (perhaps intentional) of the altar prescriptions, xx. 24ff., and in the lack of any reciprocal promise on Yahweh's part corresponding to xxiii. 2off. It seems to be the understanding of J, however, that Yahweh's goodwill is manifested from the outset in xxiv. If. 9-11, and the prescriptions are given as the means of maintaining that goodwill. Hence after the people's sin no renewal of the covenant is needed, but only the pacification of Yahweh's anger, which is effected by Moses' intercession.

in the year.



What we may call the primitive “Numbers " comprises the narratives of JE relating to Israel's 40 years' wandering in the wilderness, of which period, however, all but a few months at the beginning and end are understood to be spent at the oasis of Kadesh (Meribath-Kadesh in J, Kadesh-barnea in D, Kadesh-Meribah in P). The Hebrew title for it, Bammidbar, “ In the wilderness" is therefore really a more appropriate one than our own, derived from the versions. This part of the primitive tradition might well be called The Book of the Wilderness Wandering.

As to the events of this period Israel's traditions were few ; and generally they attach to suggestive names of the desert region in the neighborhood of Kadesh, and of the cities in the extreme south of Palestine which were the scenes of Israel's first, unsuccessful attempt to invade the country.

The flights of quails, which are a phenomenon of the desert that might well persist in the recollection of a half-starved, nomad people as a special divine interposition, appear connected in this early narrative with a suggestive name, Kibroth-hattaawah, which the author interprets as graves of lust.” The manna, which is to this day employed by the Arabs of the peninsula to stay the pangs of hunger, and whose Arab name, mann es shema “ gift of heaven,” shows the still persisting devout conception of its origin, is another of the phenomena of the desert which might well survive even the dark ages which followed the Conquest, transfigured and idealized in the popular recollection. We surely do not think amiss in seeing here the traces of actual national recollection. The story of the fiery serpents had a tangible point of attachment in the brazen idol Nehushtan, of whose destruction by the reforming zeal of Hezekiah we read in II Kings xviii. 4. Here, as so often, the accommodator (if we may invent a term for the rebaptizers of the pagan symbols into

memorials" of Yahweh worship) had preceded the iconoclast;

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