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and moreover we saw the children of Anak there. (E)[...] Amalek dwelleth in the land of the South : and 29 the Hittite, and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, dwell in the mountains : and the Canaanite dwelleth by the sea, and (J) -along by the side of Jordan. [...] And "Caleb 30 stilled the people before Moses, and said, Let us go up at once, and possess it; for we are well able to overcome it. But the men that went up with him 31 said, We be not able to go up against the people; for (P) they are stronger than we. 28 And they brought up an 32 evil report of the land which they had spied out unto the children of Israel, saying, The land, through which we have gone to spy it out, (E) is a "land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof ; and all the people that we saw in it are men of great stature. (Rd) there we saw the Nephilim, the sons of Anak, which come (E) of the Nephilim : * and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.

(P) (J) And all the congregation lifted up their voice, 14 (E) (J)and cried : and the people wept that night- And (P) all the children of Israel - murmured against Moses and against Aaron: and the whole congregation said unto them, ? Would God that we had died in the land of Egypt! or would (E) God we had died in this wilderness! And [. ] where- 3 fore doth Yahweh bring us unto this land, sto fall by the sword? (J) 'Our wives and our little ones shall be a prey : were it not better for us to return into Egypt? (E) And they said one to another, Let us make a captain, 4 (P) and let us return into Egypt. Then Moses and Aaron 5


24 Gen. 20:1; ct. Vs. 17.

25Vs. 17 and refs. 26 Ex. 2:5; Jud. 11 : 26. 2714:23f. 2814 : 36; 2: Lev. 26 : 38 ; Ez. 36 : 13.

30 Gen. 6: 4. ct, Dt. I: 24.

1 Vs. 5, 26 etc. 4 Vs. 31 ; Dt. 1:39.

220 : 3

3V. 43

*Vs. 33a b is a harmonistic gloss not found in LXX, intended to identify the Nephilim, or giants, of E with the “children of Anak” of J, vv. 22, 28, though here a different expression (beni-Anak) is used. The latter are also taken by D to be giants, perhaps from this identification. Cf. the gloss in Gen. vi. 4, where (in spite of the intervening Flood) the same Nephilim are identified with the Gibborim.


fell on their faces before "all the assembly of the congregation of 6 the children of Israel.' And "Joshua the son of Nun and Caleb

the son of Jephunneh, which were of them that spied out the land, 7 rent their clothes : and they spake unto all the congregation of the

children of Israel, saying, The land, which we passed through to 8 (J) spy it out, is an exceeding good land. If Yahweh

delight in us, then he will bring us into this land,

and give it unto us; a land which sfloweth with 9 milk and honey. Only rebel not against Yahweh,

neither fear ye the people of the land ; for they are bread for us: their defence is removed from

over them, and Yahweh is with us : fear them not.-* 10 (P) But all the congregation bade stone them with stones. And

the glory of Yahweh appeared in the tent of meeting unto all the children of Israel.

(J) And Yahweh said unto Moses, How long will this people "despise me? and how long will they not

12 believe in me, for all the signs which I have 12 wrought among them? I will smite them with the

pestilence, and disinherit them, and 3will make

of thee a nation greater and mightier than they. 13 And Moses said unto Yahweh, 14Then the Egyptians

shall hear it; for thou broughtest up this people in 14 thy might from among them; and they will tell it to

15the inhabitants of this land : they have heard that thou Yahweh 16art in the midst of this people; for thou Yahweh art seen face to face, and thy cloud standeth over them, and thou 18goest before them, in a pillar of cloud by day, and in a pillar of fire by




'Ex. 16: 516: 4, 22 ; 17:10; 20:6. 6 Ex. 12 : 6. Vv. 30, 38 ; ct. 23f. 813 : 27 and refs.

12 Ex. 14 : 31. 111: 20.

13 Ex. 32 : 10.

14 Ex. 32: 12. 10 and rets. 10 Ex. 10 : 3 ; cf. vs. 26. 15 Gen. 50: 11.

18 Ex. 13 : 21f; ch. 10 : 30. 16 Ex. 34:9.

17Ct. 12:8; Ex. 33: 11.

* Vv. 2a, 3b and Sf. should be inserted before xiii. 30 (see Analysis), where it is pointed out that in Dt. i. 29f. vv. Sf. are attributed to Moses. The reverse process (Wellh. Comp. p. 104) is impracticable, because according to xiii. 30f. the revolt must have taken place while Caleb and his companions were still standing in presence of Moses and the people; whereas the events of xiv. iff, belong to the next day ; cf. xiv. Ib (E.).

night. Now if thou shalt kill this people as one man, 15, then the nations which have heard the fame of thee will speak, saying, Because Yahweh was not able to 16 bring this people into the land which he sware unto them, therefore he hath slain them in the wilderness. And now, I pray thee, let the power of 19the 17 (Rd) Lord be great, according as 20thou hast spoken, saying, 18 Yahweh is slow to anger, and plenteous in mercy, forgiving iniquity and transgression, and that will by no means clear [the guilty] ; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, upon the third and upon the fourth generation. * Pardon, I pray thee, the iniquity of this 19 people according unto the greatness of thy mercy, and according as thou hast forgiven this people, from Egypt even until now. And Yahweh said, I 20 ??have pardoned according to thy word: but in very 21 deed, as I live, and as all the earth shall be filled with the glory of Yahweh ; because all those men 22 which have seen my glory, and my signs, which I wrought in Egypt and in the wilderness, yet have tempted me these ten times, and have not harkened to my voice; surely they shall not see the 23 land which I sware unto their fathers,t neither shall any of them that 2despised me see it: but my ser- 24 19Ex. 4 : 10 and refs.

20 Ex. 34 : 61. 24 Jos. 14: 6-15.

* The accounts in J of Moses' intercessions (Ex. xxxii. 7-14; xxxiii. 12xxxiv. 7 etc.) have generally undergone revision by Rd, as in the present in

The quotation of Ex. xxxiv. 6f. establishes the lateness of vv. 17b, 18, and the same hand has doubtless been busy in the rest of the paragraph (cf. LXX,), making the translation uncertain and construction confused. In vs. 17 read with LXX., “let thy power be magnified, O Lord.” The idea of the original writer is precisely as in Jos. vii. 8f. (J); the appeal is not, as in 17b, 18, to Yahweh's promise of mercy, but to his jealousy of his reputation for “power.” Thus 17b, 18 (Rd) give a wrong turn to 17a and anticipate vs. 19.

† The LXX. insert here, “ But as for their children who are here with me, as many as have not known good or evil (cf. Gen. iii. 5: Is. vii. 15; vs. 29 and xxxii. U--LXX.) to them I will give the land.” In Dt. i. 39 the same language appears as part of the divine utterance here, and LXX. may have taken it thence. The fact shows at least a recognition by LXX. that the passage above is



21 Ex. 32 : 14

22 Ex. 17:2, 7:

23Vs. 11 and refs.




vant Caleb, because he had another spirit with him, and hath followed me fully, him will I bring into the

land whereinto he went; and his seed shall possess 25 (E) it. [

] Now the 25 Amalekite and the Canaanite dwell in the valley : to-morrow turn ye, and get you into

the wilderness 20by the way to the Red Sea. 26 (P) And Yahweh spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 27 ? How long [shall I bear] with this evil congregation, which

murmur against me? I have heard the murmurings of the chil28 dren of Israel, which they murmur against me. Say unto them,

As I live, saith Yahweh, surely as 28 ye have spoken in mine ears, 29 so will I do to you : your carcases shall fall in this wilderness ;

and all that 29were numbered of you, according to your whole

number, from twenty years old and upward, which have mur30 mured against me, surely ye shall not come into the land, concerning

which / 30 lifted up my hand that I would make you dwell therein,

save Caleb the son of Jephunneh, and Joshua the son of Nun. 31 (J) But your little ones, which sye said should be a

prey, them will I bring in, and they shall know the 32 land which ye have "rejected. But as for you, your 33 carcases shall fall in this wilderness.

children shall be #wanderers in the wilderness forty

years, and shall bear your 34whoredoms, until your 34 (P) carcases be consumed in the wilderness. 36 After

the number of the days in which ye spied out the land, even forty 2513 : 29 ; VV. 43, 45. 26 Ex. 13 : 18 ; ch. 21 : 4.2717 : 10 etc ; cf. vs. 11.

28Vs. 2 ; cf. vs. 32. 31 Vs. 3; Dt. 1 : 39.

33 Gen. 4:12; 46 : 34. 3513 : 21. incomplete without the substance of vv. 31-33.

But Dt. i. 20–46 which keeps very close to JE in Num. xiii. f., presents a further statement in vv. 37f. of Yahweh's anger with Moses for Israel's sake, and denying to him admission to the land of promise (reiterated in iv. 21 ; xxxi: 3) which contradicts P (xx. 1-13), and was certainly part of the older tradition. The story of Yahweh's anger with Moses may not originally have belonged here (see above p. 18), or may have been from the hand of E or Rje, but the concurrent witness of LXX., Deuteronomy and P in vv. 26-30, 34f. who here reproduces, to some extent even verbally, the story of vv. 11-24 (cf. vv. II with 27 ; 21, 32 with 28 ; 33 with 34f. ; and the plus of LXX. in vs. 23 with 29b) seems to indicate the former existence of somewhat more of JE in and after vs. 24. From this connection, as appears from Dt. i. 38-40, vv. 31-33 have been removed.


And your


29 Chh. 1-3.

30 Ex. 6:8.

3211: 20.

34 Ex. 34 :




days, for every day a year, shall ye 36 bear your iniquities, even forty years, and ye shall know my "alienation. 1, Yahweh, have 35 spoken, surely this will I do unto all this evil congregation, that are gathered together against me : in this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die. And the men, which Moses 36 sent to spy out the land, who returned, and 38 made all the congregation to murmur against him, by bringing up an evil report against the land, even those men that did bring up an evil report 37 of the land, died by the plague before Yahweh. But 49 Joshua 38 the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, remained alite (E) of those men that went to spy out the land.

And Moses 39 told these words unto all the children of Israel: 40and the people mourned greatly. 41 And they rose up early in the 40 morning, and gat them up to the top of the mountain, saying, Lo, we be here, and will go up unto the place which Yahweh hath promised : 43for we have sinned. And Moses 41 said, Wherefore now do ye transgress the commandment of Yahweh, seeing it shall not prosper? Go not up, for Yah- 42 weh is not among you ; that ye be not smitten down before your enemies.

For there the 44 Amalekite and the Canaanite 43 are before you, and tóye shall fall by the sword : because ye are turned back from following Yahweh, therefore Yahweh will not be with you. But they presumed to go up to the 44 (Rd) top of the mountain : nevertheless the ark of the cove(E) nant of * Yahweh, and Moses, 46departed not out of the camp. Then the Amalekite came down, and the Canaanite 45 which dwelt in that mountain, and smote them and beat them down, even unto 47 Hormah.

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* *

* 3618 : 1, 23 37 Ex. 6:6-8. 39 Ct. vs. 24. Dt. 1 : 36. 40Ex. 33 : 4.

41 Gen. 20 : 8; 21 : 14 etc.

42Vs. 44 ; 13: 17, 29. 43 Ex. 32 : 31 ; ch. 12:11 ; 21:7; (22 : 34) ; Jos. 7: 20 etc. 44 3: 29 ; vv. 25, 45. 45Vs. 3. 46(Ex. 13 : 22); 33 : 11. 47Cf. xxi. 1-3 ; Jud. 1 : 17.

3813: 32.

* There is no other passage in JE where the name “ark of the covenant of Yahweh is found in a context of unquestionable genuineness. On the other hand there are several passages where an original “ ark of Yahweh ” has been altered by the insertion of berith (" covenant of ”). The probability is accordingly against the genuineness of the word here.—After vs. 45 LXX. add, “ So they returned to the camp.”.

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