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interweaving is as close as in the plague narratives, and in particular the verbal correspondence of fulfilment with prediction in J repeats one of the most remarkable of the phenomena there.

We are able thus to extricate the strands of J and E and to adduce some evidence that I's story, combined by Rje with E's narrative of the revolt of Dathan and Abiram perhaps because of their similar conclusion, related how Korah, a Kenizzite, and On, a Pelethite (Philistine), presumptuously brought an offering to Yahweh, claiming the right of sacrifice for all the people (za 6, 7b ?), and accusing Moses of arbitrarily assuming the prerogative (vs. 13). We have already found J vindicating the preëminent right of the Levites to the priesthood of the ark (Ex. xxxii. 25-29), and recognizing an even prior right in the family of Aaron (Ex. iv. 14; xix. 22 ; xxiv. 1f. 9-11). We shall find him subsequently emphasizing the prerogative of the Jerusalem priesthood (Dt. xxxiii. 8–10) and providing finally a third grade of temple functionaries in the nethinim, or hierodouloi, whom Joshua institutes from the Gibeonites (Jos. ix. 22–27-J). All these distinctions of priestly rank are pre-Deuteronomic; for the preexilic chief-priest” is a very different personage from the exclusively post-exilic “ high-priest ; "and, although they carry back the germs of P's hierarchical system to a period by several centuries earlier, they are by no means improbable representations to be made by a priest of the Solomonic temple, circ. 800 B. C., such as we suppose J to have been. Nor do they conflict with J's representations of the priestly functions of the Ephraimite Samuel at the high place of Zuph, 1 Sam. ix., which is a different matter from the priesthood before the ark of I Sam. xxii. (J). But one element of the evidence for this theory of J in Num. xvi. is still to be mentioned. We know from Zeph. 1. 9 and Ez. xliv. off. that the presence of certain “ foreigners ” as functionaries in the Jerusalem temple was extremely obnoxious to the stricter Mosaists of the Deuteronomic period. One class of these are known to have occupied this position since the time of David. (W. Robertson Smith, 0. T. in Jew. Ch. first ed. pp. 249ff, 359). They were the Pelethites, or Philistines of the royal body-guard. Whether this fact may have any connection with the story of “On the son of Peleth " is for critics to decide. As to the original position of the JE portion of Num. xvi. it can only be said that it probably preceded the reference in xiv. 22. No location whatever is given.

The story of Kadesh-Meribah, xx. 1-13 must also of course precede that of the spies, chh. xvi f. since the lack of water would be felt immediately, if at all; moreover vs. i indicates a first arrival. P's location of the story of the spies in “the wilderness of Paran” necessitated the transfer. But the story of Meribah, the strife of the people with Moses and the smitten rock, has already been related in Ex. xvii. 1-7. According to the results there obtained we need expect in the Meribah story of Num. xx. no trace of E; but vs. 3a which is incongruous with vs. 13 (the people strive with Yahweh), and is identical with Ex. xvii. 2, is almost certainly from J; as well as vs. 5, which duplicates vs. 4, and is throughout characteristic of J in style and language (cf. Ex. xiv. uif; xvii. 3; Nu. xi. 5, 20; xvi. 13). We also know from Dt. xxxiii. 2 (emended reading) that J connected Meribath-Kadesh as in the etymology of vs. 13 (P). Besides 3a, 5, 13 (?) there is nothing in xx. 1-13 traceable prima facie to or E, save vs. Ibc, which should probably be assigned to E (cf. Ex. xv. 20f; ii. 4ff ; Num. xii. and Dt. x. 6). The datum is referred to by Dt. i. 46 and quoted verbally by Jud. xi. 17. These references also point to an E origin. The clause cannot be from P, whose elaborate date it interrupts (see note in loc.).

No evidence is required to demonstrate that the principal narrative in Num. xx. 1-13 is from P. The date, vs. ia; the reference to xvi. 35 in 3b; the subsequent allusions in xxvii. 14; Dt. xxxii. 15 to the strife of the congregation at the waters of Meribah of Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin ;” the characteristic phraseology and style (cf. vs. 6 with xvi. 1822, 42-45 and see refs.) leave no possibility of doubt. A moment's attention however to the subsequent references to the rebellion of Moses and Aaron will show that the hand of Rp or P3, has been here at work, completely obliterating all trace of the real sin of Moses and Aaron. For the treatment of this phenomenon in detail the reader is referred to the notes in loc. and to the careful discussion of Cornill. Z. A. W. xi. 1. The question must arise, however, whether in this working over of P's story of the rebellion of Moses and Aaron Rp has not been to some extent influenced by the story of J. Now in vs. Sa b there is an element quite incongruous with the story of P2, as appears both from the direction as given in 8a, and as carried out in vs. II. If Moses is bidden to “take the rod ” in vs. 8 it is because Yahweh means him to use it, as he actually does in vs. 11. But the directions proceed in vs. 8, “ And speak ye unto the rock before their eyes that it give forth its water, and thou shalt bring forth to them water out of the rock.” Thus, in the present form of the command the use of the rod is entirely ignored ; moreover 8c is superfluous after 8b. The substitution of a blow of the rod, or of two blows (vs. II) for a verbal appeal, is certainly not the sin of “ rebellion ” of which Moses and Aaron were guilty. At most they could be blamed for presumptuous over-confidence, but certainly it could not be said that they “ believed not in Yahweh to sanctify him " (vs. 12). And if they were not to smite with the rod why were they bidden to take it ? Why at least are they not blamed for the fault of smiting in place of speaking, instead of for a different fault ? In 8ab we have clearly an independent representation, differing from both E and P in that no wonder-working rod appears. As there is nothing in the clause incompatible with J authorship, it seems at least probable that this different representation is I's and not a mere modification of P”, by Rp. That in J's story of Meribath-Kadesh " the rod-feature should be absent is not at all surprising, in view of the fact above referred to, that this author had a totally different conception of the story how “ Yahweh said unto Moses, Gather the people together and I will give them water” and of the “ Well” “ digged by the rod of the law-giver, and the princes' staves" (xxi. 16-20 f.)

up 2

and 3

(P) (Rp) Noze i Korah the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the 16 (E) son of Levi. [. ] with 2Dathan and Abiram, the sons (J) (E) of Eliab, [. . . ] and On, the son of Peleth, sons (J) (E) of Reuben, took [men] * and they rose (P) before Moses, with certain of the children of Israel [...] two hundred and fifty Sprinces of the congregation, (J) (P) called to the assembly, * men of renown : 5 they assembled themselves together against Moses and against Aaron, and said unto them, "Ye take too much upon you, (J) seeing Tall the congregation are holy, every one of them, and (P) 'Yahweh is among them: [...] wherefore then lift ye up yourselves above the assembly of Yahweh? And when 4 Moses heard it, he fell upon his face : and he spake unto Korah 5 and unto all his company, saying, In the morning Yahweh will shew who are his, and who is holy, and 10will cause him to come near unto him : even him whom he shall choose will he cause to

1, Chron. 2 : 43.
2Dt. 11:6; ct. 26 : 8ff.

4Gen. 6:4. Vs. 42; 20:2 ; 27: 3. 67b. ?17 :1ff. *Ex. 33 : 16; Num. 11:20. 'Vv. 22, 45, etc.

1017 : 5, 13; 18:2.

3Ch. 7.

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*In vs. I the text is corrupt. Dillmann conjectures in place of “took” (no object) a dittograph of the following rose up.” The emendation of Köhler, endorsed by Graf, Nöld., Col., Kuen., and Dillm., to make ib agree with the genealogies (xxvi. 8ff) by reading “ Eliab, the son of Pallu, the son of Reuben," is too easy, not explaining the corruption, and makes shipwreck on Dt. xi. 6.


6 come near unto him. This do ; take you censers, Korah, and 7 all his company; and put fire therein, and put incense upon them

before Yahweh to-morrow : and it shall be that the man whom

Yahweh doth choose, he [shall be] holy:-ye take too much upon you, 8 (Rp) ve sons of Levi.— And Moses said unto Korah, Hear now, 12ye sons 9 of Livi: (seemeth it but] 13 a small thing unto you, that the God of Israel

14 hath separated you from the congregation of Israel, to bring you near to him

self ; to do the service of the tabernacle of Yahweh, and to stand before the 10 congregation to minister unto them ; and that he hath brought thee near, und

all thy brethren the sons of Levi with thee? and seek ye the priesthood also ? 11 Therefore 15 thou and all thy company are gathered together against Yahweck: 12 (E) 16and Aaron, what is he that ye murmur against him? And Moses

lisent to call Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab: and they 13 (J) said, We will not come up [. ] is it a small thing

that thou hast brought us up out of a 18 land flowing with milk and honey, ''to kill us in the wilderness,

but thou must needs make thyself also a prince over 14 us? Moreover thou hast not brought us into a land

flowing with milk and honey, nor 2given us inherit

ance of fields and vineyards: wilt thou 2 put out the 15 eyes of these men ? we will not come up. And Moses

was very wroth, and said unto Yahweh, 22Respect not thou their offering: I have not taken one ass

from them, neither have I hurt one of them. 16 (Rp) 23 And Moses said unto Korah, Be thou and all thy congregation before 17 Yahweh, thou, and they, and Aaron, to-morrow : and take ye every man his

censer, and fut incense upon them, and bring n before Yahweh every man his

censer, two hundred and fifty censers ; thou also, (ind Aaron, each his censer. 18 (P) And they took every man his censer, and put fire in them, and

laid incense thereon, and stood at the door of the tent of meeting 19 with Moses and Aaron. And Korah assembled all the congrega

13Vs. 13.

1527 : 3.

HVs. 18. 12Vv. 3, 7 ; ct. vs. 1.

14 Ct. 18: iff.

16Ex. 16 : 7f. 1722 :: 5, 20.

201 Sam. 22 : 7. 18 Ex. 3:8 and refs. 19Ex. 14 : 11; 17 : 3 ; Ch. 14 : 32f; ch. 20: 5. 21 Jud. 16:21. 22 Gen. 4:4, 5.

23Vv. 5-7

† It is scarcely needful to point out that the proper place for vs. 7c is after vs. 3. “ Korah and his company,” vs. 5, are not “sons of Levi.” At most Korah himself is one; but according to vs. 2, his followers are simply “ of the children of Israel,” princes of the congregation. The clause is either displaced, or, possibly, a fragment of J.


tion against them unto the door of the tent of meeting : 24and the glory of Yahweh appeared unto all the congregation.

25 And Yahweh spake unto Moses and unto 'Aaron, saying, 20 Separate yourselves from among this congregation, that I may con- 2 1 sume them in a moment. And they fell upon their faces, and said, 22 O God, 26the God of the spirits of all flesh, shall one man sin, and wilt thou be wroth with all the congregation? And Yahweh 23 spake unto Moses, sa:ing, Speak unto the congregation, saying, 24 Get 24 (Rp) you up from about the tabernacle of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. (E) And Moses rose up and went unto Dathan and Abiram; 25 (Rp) 28and the elders of Israel followed him. 'And he spake 26 unto the congregation, saying, Depart, I pray you, from the tents of these wicked men, and touch nothing of theirs, lest ye be consumed in all their sins. (P) (Rp) So they gat them up from the tabernacle of Korah, 27 (E) Dathan, and Abiram,* on every side : and Dathan and Abiram came out, and stood at the door of their tents [ ] (J) and their wives, and their sons, and their little ones. And Moses said, ” Hereby ye shall know that 28 Yahweh hath sent me to do all these works; 31 for [I have] not [done them] of mine own mind. If these 29 men die the common death of all men, or if they be visited after the visitation of all men; then Yahweh hath not sent me. But if Yahweh make a new 30 thing, and the *ground open her mouth, and swallow them up, with all that appertain unto them, and they 36 go down alive into the pit; then ye shall understand that these men have 3 despised Yahweh.


24 Ex. 16: 10; ch.14 : 5, 10 ; vs. 42. 25Vv. 44f.

2627 : 16. 279:17, 21f ; 10: 11, etc. 280 : 30. 30 Gen.

32 Ex. 34 : 10; 24:14; (42 : 33); Ex. 7: 16, 17. 3124 : 13. cf. Gen. 1:1. 33 Ex. 33 : 16 and refs.

S4Gen. 4:11.

35Gen. 37 : 35 ; 42 : 38 ; 44 : 31. 3611 : 20 ; 14 : 11, 23.

29 Vs. 24.

* Harmonistic redaction; see Analysis. Vs. 26 in its present form, is dependent on the alteration of the original “ Yahweh” to “Korah, Dathan and Abiram” and on 23f. This attempted fusion of Korah with Dathan and Abiram is certainly very late, as in Ps. cvi. 17 they are still kept apart, and LXX. have a different text.—The latter part of the verse (Moses' words) may be from E.

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