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In like manner the blessing and cursing of xxvii. 11-26 is obviously a parallel, and not a preliminary, to the blessing and curse of chh. xxixff. Here too the scene is Shechem, as in vv. 1-8; moreover in vs. 12 Levi, as in the most ancient part of the Pentateuch (Gen. xxxiv. 30; xlix. 5), is placed on a footing of equality with the secular tribes, which is contrary to the whole attitude of Deuteronomy, and even more so toward that of the later writings. True, vv. 14-26 are conceived in the spirit of the priestly post-exilic period, and presuppose the legislation of Pl and D, if not P2. We must assign them to Rd if not to Rp. But vv. 14-26 are a foreign attachment to vv. 11-13, or rather a late expansion thereof. Levi in vs. 12 has not this independent, priestly part to play, and the whole conception of how six tribes are to bless the people and six to curse them in vv. 11-13 is different from that of vv. 14-26, where this part is taken away from the tribes and given to the Levites. Finally even vv. II-13 though clearly referring to the same event as xi. 29f. (Dp) are not in harmony with them. It is quite clear that the nucleus of ch. xxvii. is ancient material from the “prophetic” narrative, worked over by a very late hand (Rd) and attached to Deuteronomy in spite of the fact that it is more than superfluous there. Whence then is this material derived ? There is but one writer of the Hexateuch for whom Shechem is the religious centre, or who would even dream of locating there the formal adoption of the national Mosaic institutions, and that is E (cf. e.g. Jos. xxiv.). There is but one writer, if any, who treats Levi after Ex. xxxii. as a secular tribe ; and that is E. There is but one to whom the directions for the altar and sacrificial feast in mount Ebal (!) can be assigned ; and that is the author of Ex. xx. 24f., already shown to be E. In short, no course is open to the critic save to recognize that the primitive material of ch. xxvii. belongs to E ; and if so this furnishes further confirmation of our decision in regard to the fragments preceding.

As to the manner in which this material has been adjusted to the surrounding Deuteronomic context, we need only point out that the passage has clearly been retouched to fit it for the present context, (see note in loc.), doubtless by the same hand as xxvi. 16-19, where (vs. 19) the late verse, Ex. xix. 6, is referred to, and the writer (Rd) leads over from the Deuteronomic context to the idea of the covenant in xxvii, 1-8. On the other hand xxvii. 9f., which are missed before xxviii. 1, may well be original with Dp. The Deuteronomic character of these verses is so plain from the style and language as to be unmistakable even in translation and to the tyro. Vv. 9f., accordingly, we may here pass over. On the other hand we have all the material derived from E in xxvii. 1-8, 11-26, and in xxvi. 16-19 we have the link connecting it with Deuteronomy. That which is clear, finally, from the moment that the basis of ch. xxvii. is admitted to be E's, is that our Deuteronomy has taken the place of a Second Law of Moses in the plains of Shittim, a law to be written on great stones in Ebal, and there to be ratified by the people, in solemn sacrificial feast and covenant ; for this is the significance not only of the sacrificial meal of vs. 7, but also, no doubt, of the ceremony on Ebal and Gerizim (cf. Jer. xxxiv. 18f. and Gen. xv. 10, 17). This book of the law of this second covenant we infer to have been that given to Moses at Horeb during his 40 days' sojourn in the mount, and preserved to us, for the most part if not entire, under the title “ These are the Judgments” in Ex. xxi.- xxiii. 9. In one more respect then the writer of Hilkiah's law-book with its terrible curses (2 Kings xxii.) was true to tradition ; and Jeremiah also, in reminding the people how they themselves and all their princes and nobles had ratified the covenant of Yahweh's law by passing between the severed parts of the sacrificial calf, referred to no recent or doubtful claim, but to the immemorial belief and tradition of his day.

(Rd) These be the words which Moses spake unto all Israel beyond 1 Jordan in the wilderness, in the Arabah over against Suph, [...] (E) between Paran, and Tophel, and 'Laban, and ?Hazeroth, and Di-zahab. It is eleven days' [journey) from Horeb 8by 2 the way

of 4mount Seir unto Kadesh-barnea.* [...] (Rp) “And it came to pass in the fortieth year, in the eleventh month, on the 3 first day of the month, that Moses spake unto the children of Israel, according unto all that Yahweh had given him in commandment unto them, (Rd) 6after he had smitten Sihon, the king of the Amorites, which dwelt in 4 Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, which dwelt in Ashtaroth, at Edrei beyond Jordan, in the land of Moab, began Moses to declare this law, saying,† 5




1 Nu. 33: 20.
2 Nu. 11:35
3Ex. 13:17; Nu. 14: 25 ; 21 : 4.

4 Jos. 24:4.

5 Nu. 10:11; 14 : 34 ; 20:1. 64 : 46; 31 : 4.

* Kadesh-barnea is the form usually employed by D (but cf. vs. 46) and we do not find it outside of Deuteronomic passages. E, however, may have used it when speaking of Kadesh in such a connection as the present, though elsewhere he employs simply “Kadesh,” or Rd may have added “barnea” here. Still the assignment of vs. 2 to E must be admitted to be very doubtful, and depends mainly on the fact that the passage has no other intelligible connection than with the itinerary from Horeb to Kadesh.

† Vv. 4f. appear to connect with ia, and afford a curious parallel to iv. 44ff.

10—6 (E)- And the children of Israel journeyed from Beeroth

Benejaakan to Moserah: athere Aaron died, and there he was

buried ; and Eleazar his son ministered in the priest's office 7 in his stead. From thence they journeyed unto Gudgodah;

and from Gudgodah to Jotbathah, a land of brooks of water.


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(E) [ ] Remember what Amalek did unto 18 thee by the way as ye come forth out of Egypt ; how he

met thee by the way, and smote the hindmost of thee,

(Rd) all that were feeble behind thee, when thou wast faint and weary ; 19 and he ?feared not God. Therefore it shall be, when Yahweh

thy God hath &given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which Yahweh thy God giveth thee for an inheritanee to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven ; thou shalt not forget.

26—16 (Rd) This day Yahweh thy God commandeth thee to do these

statutes and judgments : thou shalt therefore keep and do them with all 17 thine heart, and with all thy soul. Thou hast avouched Yahweh this day

to be thy God, and that thou shouldest walk in his ways, and keep his stat

3 Jos. 24 : 33

Nu. 26: 12f ; 33 : 30-33. 2Ct. Nu. 20 : 22ff.

4Nu. 33 : 32f. 11 Sam. 15: 2Ex. 1 : 17 and refs.

31 Sam. 12 : 4 Ex. 17 : 14; 1 Sam. ch. 15.



111 : 32.

In order to connect the recapitulatory address of Dh, which formed the outer envelope of Deuteronomy, with JE, was necessary to introduce some such date. In removing x. I-11 from this connection to its present position Rd was no doubt influenced by its relation to ch. ix. (Dp) as well as by a desire to supply the sequel to the story of the Apostasy.

* From the name Jotbathah, taken to mean “ excellent in water." For the connection, or rather complete lack of connection of this fragment see above, Analysis p. 256. The reinstatement of Aaron to the priestly office presupposed here and in Jos. xxiv. 33 must be understood to have taken place after Ex. xxxii. 33, as Dt. ix. 20 in fact declares it did, referring to something not preserved in the narrative. In Ex. xviji. 12 also, a passage certainly to be placed later in than Ex. xxxii., Aaron appears in good favor. All these passages confirm the idea of Kuenen, Cornill et al., attributing Ex. xxxii. 1-6, 16–24, 30–34. to an E?

† Ch. xxv. 17-19 has been taken up by Rd from the discourse of Moses.



utes, and his commandments, and his judgments, and harken unto his voice : and Yahweh ?hath avouched thee this day to be a peculiar people 18 unto himself, as he 3hath promised thee, and that thou shouldest keep all his commandments; and to make thee thigh above all nations which he 19 hath made, in praise, and in name, and in honor; and that thou mayest be an holy people unto Yahweh thy God, bas he hath spoken.*

(E) [.. ] And Moses and the elders of Israel com- 27 (Rd) manded the people, saying, ?Keep all the commandment which I command you this day. And it shall be on the day when ye shall pass over Jordan unto the land which Yahweh thy God giveth thee, that thou shalt set thee up great stones, and plaister them with plaister : and thou 3 shalt write upon them all the words of this law, when thou art passed over; 3that thou mayest go in unto the land which Yahweh thy God giveth thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, as Yahweh, the God of thy fathers, (E) hath promised thee. And lit shall be when ye are passed 4 over Jordan, that ye shall 5set up these stones, which I command you this day, in 6mount Ebal, and thou shalt plaister them with plaister. And there shalt thou build an altar unto 5 Yahweh thy God, an altar of stones : thou shalt lift up no [tool iron] upon them. Thou shalt build the altar of Yahweh 6 thy God of unhewn stones : and thou shalt offer burnt offerings thereon unto Yahweh thy God: and thou shalt sacrifice 7 peace offerings, and shall eat there ; and thou shalt rejoice before Yahweh thy God. And thou shalt write upon the stones all the 8 words of this law very Splainly.

27:6; 14: 2 ; 28 : 9. 3Ex. 19: 5f. 44:7f. ; 28 : 1. etc. 35 : 16 ; 10: 9.

4 Jos. 8: 30-35.

5 Jos. 24 : 26. 32 : 6. 81 : 5.

5 Ex. 19 : 6.
6Ct. 11 : 29.

? Jos. 24 ; 1. 226 : 16f.

Ex. 20 : 24 ; 24 : 5;

* Vv. 16-19 introduce the directions for the covenant in ch. xxvii. Their position, character, language (see refs.) and purpose all show them to be Rd's, and the references in vv. 18f. to Ex. xix. 5f. show their origin to have been even later than the latter.

† The passage providing for the solemn ratification of a covenant at Shechem similar to that at Horeb (Ex. xxiv. 3-8), which Rd has here adopted as a suitable conclusion to the Deuteronomic law, has naturally been very thoroughly retouched by him, like the story of its fulfillment in Jos. viii. 30–35. Still the additions of Rd, recognizable both from their redundancy (cf. 2f. with 4) and from the style and language, scarcely affect the substance of the para


And Moses charged the people the same day, saying, 12 °These shall stand upon mount Gerizim to bless the people,

when ye are passed over Jordan ; Simeon and Levi, and 13 Judah, and Issachar, and Joseph, and Benjamin : and these

shall stand upon inount Ebal for the curse ; Reuben, Gad, 14 (Rd) and Asher, and Zebulun, Dan, and Naphtali. And the

Levites shall answer, and say unto all the men of Israel with a loud voice, 15

Cursed be the man that maketh a lograven or molten image, an abomination unto Yahweh, the llwork of the hands of the craftsman, and setteth it

up in secret. And all the people shall answer and say, Amen. 16 12Cursed be he that setteth light by his father or his mother. And all

the people shall say, Amen. 17

13Cursed be he that removeth his neighbor's landmark. And all the

people shall say, Amen. 18 14 Cursed be he that maketh the blind to wander out of the way. And all

the people shall say, Amen. 19

15Cursed be he that wresteth the judgment of the stranger, fatherless, and widow. And all the people shall say, Amen.

16 Cursed be he that lieth with his father's wife ; because he hath uncovered his father's skirt. And all the people shall say, Amen.

17Cursed be he that lieth with any manner of beast. And all the people shall say, Amen.

18Cursed be he that lieth with his sister, the daughter of his father, or the




daughter of his mother. And all the people shall say, Amen. 23 19Cursed be he that lieth with his mother in law. And all the people

shall say, Amen. 24

20 Cursed be he that smiteth his neighbor in secret. And all the people shall say, Amen. 25

21 Cursed be he that taketh reward to slay an innocent person. And all the people shall say, Amen.

11 Is. 40: 19ff.
12Ex. 21 : 15, 17.

1319:14. 9Jer. 34 : 189. 10 Ex. 20 : 4, 23; Lev. 19:4.

17 Ex. 22 : 19;

Lev. 18:23 ; 20:15. 14 Lev. 19:14. 15 Ex. 22 : 2.f. 16 Lev. 18:8; 20: 11.

21 Ex. 23: 7f. 18 Lev. 18:9; 20:17.

19 Lev. 18 : 17 ; 20 : 14. 20Ex. 21 : 12, 14 ; Lev. 24 : 17.

graph. In vs. I we should read with Dillmann : “And Moses commanded the elders of Israel ”; LXX. omit “ the people”; cf. vs. II, Moses' charge to the people.

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