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29 Cursed be he that confirmeth not the words of this law to do them. 26 And all the people shall say, Amen.*
Dt. xxx. if. THE CHARGE TO JOSHUA.
In Dt. xxx. if., after the hortatory appendix to the Code, we begin to find traces of the resumption of the narrative. These however are intermingled with elements clearly belonging to the Code, or rather to its envelope Dh, which it is not our purpose to touch, since the legislation is here more than ever independent of the narrative. To Dh, and to his successor, the author of ch. iv., belongs the “ Song of Moses,” xxxii. 144 ; its double introduction, xxxi. 16-22 and 24-30; and the verses, xxxii. 45-47, which bring the Law-book of Dh to a close. The passage Dt. xxxi. 9-13 has the same function and must accordingly be from another hand (Dp); but it is also purely related to the law-book. All this material therefore must be treated in a different connection. The remaining portions of the concluding chapters of Deuteronomy belong more or less strictly to the Tradition of the Exodus. In Xxx. 1-8, we have, beyond dispute, the link which attaches Deuteronomy at its latter part to the Story of the Conquest, as i. 1a, 4f. at its beginning attached it to the Story of the Wilderness Wandering. Moses announces to the people his own impending death, and presents to them Joshua as his successor, giving him a charge, and assuring him of Yahweh's presence and irresistible aid in the conquest. The passage is unmistakably by the same hand as that which has given to Joshua i. its present form ; the agreement is in fact to a great extent verbal. The relation to the editor who attaches Deuteronomy to JE in i. 1a, 4f. is also clear from the style. There will be no difference of opinion among critics in ascribing the passage to Rd.
Connected in a way with this charge to Joshua are the remarkable verses xxxi. 14f., 23; for in spite of some striking differences in the conception both passages are adapted to lead over to the Story of the Conquest by relating the Charge to Joshua. That vv. 141., 23 have no original connection with 1-8 is very clear. Their separation by v. 9-13 might indeed be accidental ; but in vv. 1-8 the charge is given by Moses, in vv. 141., 23 by Yahweh. In vv. 1-8 Moses has already presented Joshua to the people as his successor; whereas in 14f., 23 Moses has yet to call him and be informed by Yahweh that Joshua has been chosen to take his place. Vv. 141., 23 again have no connection with the context in which they stand (Dh), nor with the preceding passage (Dp). They appear very much in the same relation, or rather want of relation, as the erratic blocks in chh. i. X., xxv. and xxvii. Vv. 9-13 bring the book of Deuteronomy to a full stop with directions for its perpetual preservation and inculcation to the everlasting benefit of Israel. Vs. 14 abruptly introduces the charge to Joshua. Still worse is it with vv. 16-22. Right in the midst of this charge to Joshua comes the first introduction to the Song of Moses. In vs. 15 Yahweh has descended in the cloud at. the door of the Tent of Meeting, announcing that he is about to give a charge to Joshua. The latter now stands beside Moses prepared to receive it. Instead, Yahweh addresses Moses on the subject of a certain Song he is to teach the people, and the new incident concludes without Joshua's being addressed at all. When Yahweh has concluded his directions to Moses about the Song, we are told “ So Moses wrote this Song the same day and taught it the children of Israel.” Thereafter we naturally expect the Song to follow. But no; in the next verse Yahweh is giving Joshua the charge for the purpose of which he had descended in the cloud in vs. 15, and not until a new introduction has again paved the way for it does the Song finally appear. When, in addition, we contrast the brevity and simplicity of the style in vv. 141., 23 with the hortatory and high-flown rhetoric of vv. 16-21, 24-30, it becomes very clear that here again we have one of the fragments of JE preserved by Rd.
22 Jer. 1:3
* It is very obvious from the references that the writer of vv. 14-26 is acquainted with all the older codes of the Pentateuch, the Mishpatim (E), Law of Holiness (Pl) and Deuteronomy. Reasons have already been given above (Analysis p. 260.) for regarding vv. 14-26 as much later than 11-13. But it is not impossible that they are written on the basis of the original sequel to vv.
This time also the source from which it is derived admits of no question. The position filled by Joshua (cf. Jos. xxiv.), above all the unmistakable relation of the passage to Ex. xxxiii. 7-11 ; Nu. xi. 16f. ; xii. 5, shows us that here once more is a genuine fragment of E associated by Rd with Dh, but forming no part of the latter's material. The passage indeed is indispensable in the narrative whose conclusion is found in Jos. xxiv.
This fragmentary account in E of the charge to Joshua is not without its close parallel in P?. We have in fact already discussed (see note on Num. xxvii. 12ff.) the double story of the command to Moses to ascend “this mountain of Abarim and die there”; which, in P2 as in E (Dt. xxxi. 14), is naturally connected with the charge to Joshua. In the discovery of po's source, (Dt. xxxi. 14f., 23) where the announcement to Moses that the time has come for him to die is directly associated with the command Call Joshua and present yourselves in the tent of meeting that I may give him a charge,” we have an additional reason for the conclusion arrived at in connection with Nu. xxvii. 12ff. that “this passage, whose principal theme is the charge to Joshua, and not Dt. xxxii. 48-52, which makes no reference to Joshua, is the original P?. The latter passage must then be due simply to Rp, resuming the thread of Num. xxvii. 12–23 after the prolonged interruption. It would seem almost superfluous to point out the priestly character of xxxii. 48–53, its incongruous position, relation to the P narratives of the death of Aaron (Num. XX. 22ff. P2) and trespass at Meribath Kadesh (Num. xxi. 13 P2
(Rd) And Moses went and spake these words unto all Israel. 31-I And he said unto them, I am an hundred and twenty years old this day; I can no more go out and come in : and Yahweh hath said unto me, Thou shalt not go over this Jordan. Yahweh thy God, he will go over before thee; he will 3 destroy these nations from before thee, and thou shalt possess them : [and] Joshua, he shall go over before thee, as Yahweh hath spoken. ?And Yah- 4 weh shall do unto them as he did to Sihon and to Og, the kings of the Amorites, and unto their land; whom he destroyed. And Yahweh shall 5 deliver them up before you, and ye shall do unto them according unto all 3the commandment which I have commanded you. Be strong and of good
6 courage, fear not, nor be affrighted at them : for Yahweh thy God, he it is that doth go with thee; he will not fail thee, nor forsake thee. And Moses 7 called unto Joshua, and said unto him in the sight of all Israel, •Be strong and of good courage : for thou shalt go with this people into the land which Yahweh hath sworn unto their fathers to give them ; and thou shalt cause them to inherit it. And Yahweh, he it is that doth go before thee; 8 he will be with thee, he will not fail thee, neither forsake thee : fear not, neither be dismayed.*
11:37 ; 4:21. 21:4f. ; 4:46f. 37 : 16ff. 4Jos. 1 : 5f. 5Vs. 23; Jos. 1:9.
* Vv. 1-8 serve to connect Deuteronomy with Jos. i. (see refs. and Analysis). As in Dt. i. 1, 4f. Rd seems here also to have woven in the E fragments left in situ. The passage seems to have vv. 14f. in view, although it really antici
14 (E) [...] “And Yahweh said unto Moses, Behold, thy
days approach that thou must die : call Joshua, and present yourselves in the tent of meeting, that I may give him a
charge. And Moses and Joshua went, and presented them15 selves in the tent of meeting. And Yahweh appeared in
the Tent in a pillar of cloud : and the pillar of cloud stood over the door of the Tent.
23 And he gave Joshua the son of Nun a charge, and said,
Be strong and of a good courage : for thou shalt bring the children of Israel into the land which I sware unto them : 10 and I will be with thee.
32—48 (Rp) 'And Yahweh spake unto Moses that selfsame day, saying, 49 Get thee up into this mountain of Abarim, unto mount Nebo, which is in the
land of Moab, 2that is over against Jericho ; and behold the land of Canaan, 50 which I give unto the children of Israel for a possession : and die in the mount
whither thou goest up, and be gathered unto thy people; as 3 Aaron thy 51 brother died in mount Hor, and was gathered unto his people ; because tye
trespassed against me in the midst of the children of Israel at the waters of
Meribah of Kadesh, in the wilderness of Zin ; because ye sanctified me not in 52 the midst of the children of Israel. 5 For thou shalt see the land before thee :
but thou shalt not go thither into the land which I give the children of Israel.*
8Cf. Nu. 27 : 12--23 ; vv. 1-8. Jos. 24: 1. *Ex. 33 :7-11 ; Nu. Il : 16f. ; 12 : 5.
'Ct. Vs. 7.
10 Gen. 46: 3f. Nu. 27: 12-23. 234 : 1. 3Nu. 20 : 22ff. 4 Nu. 20: 13; ct: Dt. i. 37. 5Cf. 31:2.
pates them so far as to make them well-nigh superfluous. Cf. vs. 7 before vs. 14, and vv. 7f. with vs. 23.
* The passage xxxii. 48-52 resumes the story of P2 from Num. xxvii. 12-23, but is here separated from its connection with the charge to Joshua, which must have been original (cf. xxxiv. 7-9, and xxxi. 1-8), and assimilated to J in xxxiv. If. (cf. “ that is over against Jericho,” vs. 49, with xxxiv. 1). Otherwise the verses are a close, but somewhat expanded copy of Num. xxvii. 12–14. It is worthy of note that “ rebelled against my word,” Num. xxvii. 14, is here altered to the more indefinite “ trespassed against me,” which agrees better with the present modified form of P? in Num. xx. 1-13.
3. Chh. xxxiii-f. THE BLESSING AND DEATH OF MOSES.
In a poem of unmistakable antiquity Moses surveys the trives of Israel in order, first the four older sons of Leah, from eldest to youngest ; then the sons of Rachel, proceeding from south to north ; then the two late-born sons of Leah, Zebulun and Issachar ; and lastly the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, Gad, Dan, Naphtali, Asher, apparently in the order of importance. Upon each he pronounces a blessing, concluding in the style of the exordium, vv. 1-5, with the felicitation of Israel as a whole, vv. 26-29. Immediately after the conclusion of this “ blessing " Moses ascends mount Nebo (Pisgah), surveys the Promised Land, dies, and is butied “in the valley of the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor.” After reference to the mourning for Moses, and an anticipatory allusion to the qualification of Joshua to be his successor, the author concludes his account of the life and work of Moses with a characterization of his hero as the prophet par excellence.
In attributing ch. xxxiii. to J the present writer is consciously opposing the all but unanimous consent of critics, which since the time of Graf has not only fixed its date, with what must be admitted to be a high degree of probability, in the prosperous period of Jeroboam II. (786-746 B. C.), when a reunited Israel felt itself victorious and secure in the possession of its fertile land; but has confidently declared the authorship Ephraimitic, in short that it formed part of the document of E.
The grounds for the current belief are briefly set forth by Addis in his recent work presenting the results of Hexateuch analysis as follows: “Judah (vs. 7) is to “come 'to the people, not the people to him. The poet says little of Judah, nothing of Simeon. It is of the north tribes, and particularly of Joseph, “the prince among his brethren,' that he speaks at length and with enthusiasm.” *
Dillmann, moreover, finds an affinity of language to the Aramaean and traces of influence by Nu. xxiii. To this might be added the reference in vs. 16 to Ex. iii. 2f., (J's, but attributed by critics generally to E), and the use of Elohim'in vs. 26, were it not that the reading “ the God of Jeshurun " is almost certainly to be preferred. Cornill (Einl. p. 72), with others, is influenced also by the reference in vs. 9 to Ex. xxxii. 25-29, (J), of which, however, he will go no further than to say " it appears in an E connection.” Of the reference in vs. 21 to Num. xxxii. we can only say that either J or E might be referred to, though it is the former who lays
* Addis, Documents of the Hexateuch, N. Y. 1893, Vol. I., p; 194.