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Vs. 13 is necessary to vv. 26. Vv. 14f., which are singularly inappropriate in the pedigree of Moses and Aaron, are taken bodily from Gen. xlvi. 9f. and also depend upon vs. 13 (their fathers”). But vs. 16 makes a new beginning and affords us a pedigree of Moses and Aaron according to the usual type of P title and all (see refs). Here, unlike vv. 14f., the

ages are given, and the generations are brought down to the date of the Exodus (cf. vv. 14f. with Gen. xlvi. 9f.). Vs. 25b contains the colophon, and certifies that this is a genealogy of Levi, thus excluding vv. 14f. There is no reason whatever to question the genuineness of vv. 16-25. On the contrary they would be recognized as unmistakably from P2 wherever found. Only their present position is impossible, and shown to be artificial by the elaborate patchwork of vv. 13-15, 26–30, which serve no other purpose than first to break the connection and then restore it again. On the other hand vv. 2ff., in accordance with all the previous structure of P2, presuppose just such a genealogy of Levi as vv. 16-25; otherwise the elaborate system of dates from the creation down (cf. vii. 7; xii. 4of. and Gen. passim) is suddenly broken, and Moses and Aaron are ushered in unannounced. The conclusion is unavoidable that vv. 16-25 originally preceded vv. ff., probably following upon i. 7. The story of Moses' childhood and family relations in i. 15-ii. 23a is no doubt the occasion for the displacement.

(E) ?And afterward ?Moses and Aaron came, and said unto Pharaoh, Thus saith Yahweh, the God of Israel, Let my

(Rje) people go, 3that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilder2 (E) ness.

And Pharaoh said, Who is Yahweh, that I should 13 : 10. 2Vs. 4 ; ct. 3 : 18. 37: 16.

* The last clause of vs. I. is apparently harmonistic. Throughout E's narrative nothing is said of anything more or less between Pharaoh and Moses than the simple demand here made once for all: “Let my people go," which, when refused, is followed by stroke after stroke of the rod until granted. This is the demand Moses is commanded to make in iii. 10, 12. It is the demand Pharaoh actually accedes to. It is that which Israel undertakes to carry out from the outset. They are not unprepared to leave as in J, xii. 34f., 39, but on the contrary have supplied themselves with the portable “ spoil” of the Egyptians and “the bones of Joseph.” The latter are not supposed to be taken up for " feast in the wilderness,” but Canaan is the objective point from the beginning. We cannot suppose that Moses on his own responsibility changed the message to Pharaoh with which he was entrusted, and resorted to deceit; hence in the absence of anything to the contrary, we must assume that in E the demand made of Pharaoh was straightforward, as indicated by iii. 10f., 21f.


hearken unto his voice to let Israel go? I know not Yahweh, (J) and moreover, I will not let Israel go.[. . .] *And they* 3 said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us: let us go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the wilderness, and sacrifice unto Yahweh our God; lest he fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword. (E) And the king of Egypt said unto them, Wherefore do ye, 4 6Moses and Aaron, loose the people from their works? get (J) you unto your burdens. And Pharaoh said, Behold, 5

" 8the people of the land are now many, and ye make them rest from their burdens. And the same day 6 Pharaoh commanded the "taskmasters of the people, and their officers,t saying, Ye shall no more give the peo- 7 ple straw to make lobrick, as heretofore: let them go and gather straw for themselves. And the tale of the 8 bricks, which they did make heretofore, ye shall lay upon them; ye shall not diminish aught thereof: for they be idle; therefore they cry, saying, "Let us go and sacrifice to our God. Let heavier work be laid 9 upon the men, that they may labour therein ; and let them not regard "lying words. And the "taskmasters 10 of the people went out, and their officers, and they spake to the people, saying, Thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give you straw. Go yourselves, get you straw where in ye can find it: for naught of your work shall be di

43 : 18; 7: 16; 8: 27; 10: 9, 25 ; 12 : 32 ; 15: 22. 91: II; 3: 7.

54 : 24. Vs. 1.

72: 11. 81: 7ff. 2ob.

101: 14.

11Vs. 3.


* 1. e. Moses and the elders of Israel, cf. iii. 18. In vs. 20 the harmonistic alteration here implied is made explicit by the insertion of “ Aaron


agree with vv. I and 4. But if with most critics we reject “ Aaron ” in vv. I and 4 no adequate reason can be given for the alteration.

† The clause " and their officers” seems to be added for completeness' sake in vv. 6 and 10. Hitherto in J we have heard only of “taskmasters ” and it is not explained until vs. 14 who these “ officers There they are introduced as Hebrews, and not, as in 6 and 10, apparently in alliance with the taskmasters, but beaten by them, and appealing to Pharaoh in vv. 15ff. as if they did not realize that the command of vv. 6 and 10 had come from him. Previous to vs. 14 therefore, the clause should probably be rejected.

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12 minished. So the people were scattered abroad

throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble 13 for straw. And the taskmasters were 18urgent, say

ing, Fulfil your works, (your) daily tasks, as when 14 there was straw. And the officers of the children of

Israel, which Pharaoh's taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and demanded, Wherefore have

ye not fulfilled your task both yesterday, and to-day, 15 in making brick as heretofore? Then the officers of

the children of Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh,

saying, Wherefore dealest thou thus with thy ser16 vants? There is no straw given unto thy servants,

and they say to us, Make brick: and, behold, thy

servants are beaten; but the fault is in thine own 17 people. But he said, Ye are idle, ye are idle : 14there18 fore ye say, Let us go and sacrifice to Yahweh. Go therefore now, and work; for there shall no straw

; be given you, yet shall ye deliver the tale of bricks. 19 And the officers of the children of Israel did see that

they were in evil case, when it was said, Ye shall not

minish aught from your bricks, (your) daily tasks. 20 And they met Moses and Aaron*, who stood in the way, 21 as they came forth from Pharaoh : and they said

unto them, "Yahweh look upon you, and judge; because ye have made 16our savour to be abhorred in the

eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put 22 a sword in their hand to slay us. 17 And Moses re

turned unto Yahweh, and said, Lord, wherefore hast

thou evil entreated this people? why is it that thou 23 hast sent me? For since I came to Pharaoh to speak

in thy name, he hath evil entreated this people ;

neither hast thou delivered thy people at all. 6 (E) 'And Yahweh said unto Moses, Now shalt thou see what


12 Gen. 11:8, 9; 49: 7.

13Gen. 19:15;

Jos. 10:13; 17: 15. 14Vv. 3, 8. 15Gen. 16:5;31 :

161 : 12; 53 ; 1 Sam. 24: 12, 15.

Gen. 34 : 30. 17 Num. 11; uf. 13 : 19f., 4 : 21.

* Cf. note on vs. 3.



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I will do to Pharaoh : for 'by a strong hand shall he let them go, and by a strong hand shall he drive them out of his land.

(P) 3 And God spake unto Moses, and said unto him, I am Yahweh : and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, as 3 "God Almighty, but by my name Yahweh I was not known to them. And I have also established my covenant with them, to give them the 4 land of Canaan, the land of their sojournings, wherein they sojourned. And moreover I have heard the groaning of the chil- 5 dren of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage ; and I have remembered my covenant. Wherefore say unto the children of 6 Israel, I am Yahweh, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched out arm, and with great judgments : and I will take you to me for a people, and I will be 7 to you a God: and ye shall know that I am Yahweh your God, which bringeth you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians. And I will bring you in unto the land, concerning which o/ lifted 8 up my hand to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage: I am Yahoch. And Moses 9 9 spake so unto the children of Israel : "but they hearkened not unto Moses for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage.

8 And Yahweh spake unto Moses, saying, Go in, speak unto 10-11 Pharaoh king of Egypt, that he let the children of Israel go out of his land. And Moses spake before Yahweh, saying, Behold, 12 the children of Israel have not hearkened unto me ; how then shall (Rp) Pharaoh hear me, who am of uncircumcised lips. And Yah- 13 weh spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, and gave them a charge unto the children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.

9 These are the heads of their fathers' houses : the sons of Reuben the first- 14 born of Israel ; Hanoch, and Pallu, Hesron, and Carmi: these are the families of Reuben. And the sons of Simeon ; Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and 15 Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Cantanitish woman : these are (P) the families of Simeon.* _1o Andt these are the names of the 16

*13: 3, 9, 14 ; Num. 20 : 20. 3Cf. 3 : 1-6, 9-15. Gen. 17:1; 28: 3 ; 35; 11 ; 48: 3. Gen. 17:8; 28: 4 ; 35 : 11f. ; Nu. 14 : 30. Ct. 4: 31. 8Cf. 4: 10-16, and vv. 28-30. Cf. Gen. 46 : 9f. 10Cf. 1:1; Gen. 10:1-7, 20, 31f. ; 36 ; 9-30, 40-43 ; 6:8-27 etc.

Supplementary redaction on basis of Gen. xlvi. 9f. See Analysis. † Insert after 1. 5. See Analysis, and Part 11.


52: 24.


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sons of Levi according to their generations ; Gershon, and k'o

hath, and Merari : "and the years of the life of Leri were an 17 hundred thirty and serven pears. The sons of Gershon ; Libni 18 and Shimei, according to their families. And the sons of Kohath ;

Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and l'osiel: and the years of 19 the life of kohath were an hundred thirty and three years. And

the sons of Icrari ; Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of 20 thi Levites according to their generations. And Amram took him

Jochebed his father's sister to wife ; and she bare him Aaron and

J/oses : and the years of the life of Amram ti'ere an hundred and 21 thirty and seven years. And the sons of Ishar; Koral, and Ne22 phes, and Zichri. And the sons of l’ssicl; Vishuul, and Elsa23 phai, and Sithri. And Aaron took him Elisheba, the daughter of

Ammimadab, the sister of Nahshon, to wife ; and she bare him 24 Vadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. And the sons of ko

rah ; Assir, and Elkanah, and Abiasaph ; these are the families 25 of the Korahites. And Eleazar Aaron's son took him one of the

daughters of Putiel to wife ; and she bare him Phinchas. These

are the heads of the fathers' [houses) of the Lerites ancording to 26 (Rp) their families. These are that Aaron and Moses, to whom Yahweh

said, 12Bring out the children of Israel from the land of Egypt according to 27 their hosts.

These are they which spake to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring out the children of Israel from Egypt: these are that Nloses and Aaron. 28 13 And it came to pass on the day when Yahweh spake unto Moses in the land 29 of Egypt, that Yahweh spake unto Moses, saying, I am Yahweh : speak thou 30 unto Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I speak unto thee. And Moses said before

Yahweh, Behold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how shall Pharaoh hearken (P) unto me?* And Yahweh said unto Moses, See, 'I hare made thee a god to Pharaoh : and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet. Thou shalt speak all that I command thee : and Aaron thy

brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, that he let the children of Israel 3 go out of his land. ?And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and 4 multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt. But


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11Cf. 7:7.

12V s. 10.

13 Cf. vv. 2-12.

*Cf. 4: 16. 24 : 21 ; 11: 9f ; 14 : 4, 17 etc.

* A similar attempt to restore a broken connection by repetition of the clauses preceding the point of rupture is observable in Gen. xiii. 3f., after the thread of the narrative has been broken by the insertion of xii. 9-20. See Genesis of Genesis, p. 121.

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