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To the difficulties presented by the legislative material it is even less easy to find a solution without the analysis, than to those of the narrative portion. But the same key which unlocks all the mysteries of the one, solves all the problems of the other. The J narrative material which will not agree with either narrative material of E, nor the narrative or legislative of P, agrees perfectly with the legislative material of J (Ct. xii. 34, 39 with vv. 15ff. and cf. xiii. 3ff.; ct. xiii. 3ff with xii. 15ff.; but cf. iii. 8, 17 with xiii. 5) and vice versa. The priestly legislative material agrees with its own narrative (cf. xii. Sff. with Num. xxxiii. 3f.); whereas it will agree with neither narrative nor legislation of J (ct. xii. 21–27, 33f., 37–39 etc.) nor narrative of E (xii. 312, 35f). For the details of the process by which each clause of chh. xiif. is identified as from J, E or P, the reader is referred to Art. II. and the references. The analysis will be found easy and the inconsistencies of the text will disappear if it is borne in mind that in E the Hebrews have warning of their going forth, but not the Egyptians, who are not supposed to know of Moses' demand, or at least not of the impending result ; that in P both Hebrews and Egyptians are prepared ; • for the children of Israel went out with an high hand (xiv. 8, P); but in J alone the people have no forewarning that the result of the long negotiations is suddenly achieved. The result in J fulfills of course the prediction of Moses in xi. 4-8 (cf. xii. 29f.; ct. 31a) ; the result in E, the anticipations of iii. 21f.; xi. 1-3 (cf. xii. 35f.; ct. vv. 32–34, 38f.), and that in P the promise of Yahweh in xii. 12, 17 (cf. xiv. 8; Num. xxxiii. 3f.).

12 (P) And Yahweh spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of 2 Egypt, saying, This month shall be unto you the beginning of 3 months: it shall be the first month of the year to you. ?Speak ye

unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth [day] of

this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to 4 their fathers' houses, a lamb for an household : and if the house

hold be too little for a lamb, then shall he and his neighbour next unto his house take one according to the number of the souls; accord

ing to every man's eating ye shall make your count for the lamb. 5

Your lamb shall be Bwithout blemish, a male of the first year: ye 6 shall take it from the sheep, or from the goats: and ye shall keep

it up until the fourteenth day of the same month : and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at even. 5 And they 7 shall take of the blood, and put it on the two side posts and on the lintel, upon the houses wherein they shall eat it. And they shall 8 eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; with bitter herbs they shall eat it. Eat not of it raw, nor sodden 9 at all with water, but roast with fire; its head with its legs and with the inwards thereof. And ye shall let nothing of it remain 10 until the morning; but that which remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire. And thus shall ye eat it; with your ni loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand : and ye shall eat it in haste : it is Yahweh's passover.

1Ct. 23: 16; 34: 22.

2Cf. vy. 21-27.

3 Lev. 3:1, 10 etc.; ct. Gen. 7:2f. 416:1; 17 ; etc.

For I will 12 go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments : 'I am Yahweh. And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye 13 are : and when I see the blood, I will 10pass over you, and there shall no plague be upon you to destroy you,* when I smite the land of Egypt. 11 And this day shall be unto you for a memorial, and 14 ye shall keep it a feast to Yahweh : throughout your generations ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever. 12 Seven days shall 15 ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses : for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel. And in the first day there shall be to you an 13 holy 16 convocation, and in the seventh day an holy convocation ; no manner of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that only may be done of you. And ye shall observe the (feast 17 of] unleavened bread; for in this self same day have I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day throughout your generations by an ordinance for ever. In the 18 first [month] on the fourteenth day of the month at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month

5Cf. ys, 22.

6Cf. 23 : 18; 34: 25. 713 : 1f. Nu. 33 : 4. 96 : 8; Lev. 17 : 1, 2, 4etc. 10Cf. VS. 23.

11 Vv. 24-27a. 12Cf. 13 : 3-10. 13 Lev. 23: 3-37 ; ct. 13:6.

*Etymologies in P are rather suggested than propounded : ct. vs. 27, and cf. Gen. xvii. 5, 17; Num. xx. 13. Personifications like that of vs. 23 he prefers to tone down, as here (vs. 6.); cf. Gen. vi. Iff. with 9ff.

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19 at even.


Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses : for whosoever eateth that which is leavened that itsoul shall be cut

off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a sojourner, or 20 one that is born in the land. Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.

(J) Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out, and take you lambs 22 according to your families, and kill the passover. And ye shall

take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of

you shall go out of the door of his house 16until the morning. 23 For Yahweh will pass through to smite the Egyp

tians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, Yahweh will pass over the

door, and will not suffer 16the destroyer to come in 24 (Rd) unto your houses to smite you.* 17 And ye shall observe 25 this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever. And it shall

come to pass, when ye be come to the land which Yahweh will give you, 26 according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service. And it

shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye 27 by this service ? that ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of Yahweh's passover,

1430 : 33, 38. Gen. 17 : 14. 15Ct. vv. 3iff. 16Ct. vv. 13. 1713 : 3, 8-10, 14-16; Dt. 6: 20f. etc.

* The legislative portions of J wherever met seem to be drastically worked over and interpolated. It is principally due to this redactional modification that in Art. II. this section was erroneously attributed to Rje on a basis of E. It is easier to suppose that influenced by his strong archæological interest J accounted for the ritual custom of sprinkling the doorpost with the blood of " the sacrifice of the passover " instead of the altar or maççebah as in sacrifices at the sanctuary, thus making it serve the purpose of the difference (distinctive mark) which Yahweh put between the Egyptians and Israel” (xi. 7), although usually no mark is required on account of the isolation of Goshen (viii. 22; ix. 26), than to suppose that E, who elsewhere ignores ritual interests, is the author of even the basis of this bit of ritual archæology. Dr. Budde very clearly points out how the priestly section is here throughout dependent on the “prophetic,” cf. e. g., vs. 13 with vs. 23.—The Deuteronomic style of vv. 24-27a is striking, and characteristic of the didactic interpolator. The first clause of vs. 27 may have been adopted from the original. See the article in 2. A. W. above referred to (Analysis, p. 59).

who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses.

18 And the people (P) bowed the head and worshipped. [...] And the 28 children of Israel went and did so; as Yahweh had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.

(J) "And it came to pass at midnight, that Yahweh 29 smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. -2° And Pharaoh rose up in the 30 night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; —and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was (E) not a house where there was not one dead.* 22 And 31 he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, get you forth from among my people, both ye and the chil(J) dron of Israel [ ... ]2and go, serve Yahweh as ye have said. Take both your flocks and your herds, as 32 ye have said, and be gone ; and bless me also. And 33 the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, to send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We be all dead men. And the people took their dough before 34 it was leavened, their kneading-troughs being bound (E) up in their clothes upon their shoulders. 25 And the 35 children of Israel did according to the word of Moses ; and they asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment : and Yahweh gave the people favour in 36 the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. And they spoiled the Egyptians.

(J) And the children of Israel journeyed from "Ram- 37 eses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children. 23 And a mixed multi- 38 tude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds,

1911 : 4ff. 2011 : 8. 2111: 6. 22Ct. 10:28f. 233: 18; 5:3 ; 8: 25ff.; 10 : 24ff. etc. 248 : 3. 353 : 21f.; 11:1-3.

271 : 9, 20; Nu. 11:21, 28 Nu. II : 4. * Transpose in order 30a and 30bc. By the insertion of vs. 31 (E) in place of the real sequel to 30a (xi. 5, 6, 8, J) Rje found himself compelled to change the relation of 30a from consequent of 30bc and antecedent of “and came and bowed down" (cf. xi. 8) into an antecedent of 30bc.

184 : 31.

261: II.

39 even very much cattle. And they baked unleavened

cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were

thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had 40 (P) they prepared for themselves any victual. 29 Now

the sojourning of the children of Israel, which they sojourned 41 in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.

And it came to pass at the end of four hundred and thirty years, even 80 the

selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of Yahweh went 42 (J) out from the land of Egypt. *—It is a night to be

much observed into Yahweh for bringing them (Rd) out from the land of Egypt: this is that night of Yahweh to be much observed of all the children of Israel throughout their

generations.t43 (P) 31 And Yahweh said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the 44 ordinance of the passover : there shall no alien eat thereof : but

every man's 32 servant that is bought for money, when thou hast cir45 cumcised him, then shall he eat thereof. A 33 sojourner and an 46 hired servant shall not eat thereof. In one house shall it be eaten;

thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad out of the 47 house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof. All the congregation 48 of Israel shall keep it. And when a stranger shall sojourn with

thee, and will keep the passover to Yahweh, 84let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it ; and he

shall be as one that is born in the land : but no uncircumcised per49 son shall eat thereof. One law shall be to him that is homeborn, 50 35 and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you. Thus did all 29CF. Gen. 15:14, 16. 30Vv. 17 : 51; 19: 1etc. 31 Gen. 17 : 12, 27. 32Gen. 17:12, 13, 23,

93Gen. 23 : 4etc. 34 Gen. 17 : 1oetc. 35Vs. 28, Gen. 6 : 22etc. * Vv. 40, 41 have been removed from after xiii. 2 to combine with the “prophetic” story of the flight, or perhaps, better, xiii. if. from before vv. 40f. P's much less vivid narrative, the substance of which can be gathered from vs. 12 and from Nu. xxxiii. 4f, represented the Exodus as taking place morrow after the passover,” i. e. the morning of the 15th, ct. vv. 31–34. This account has been of necessity omitted by Rp. It probably stood between xii. 50 and xiii. 1, giving occasion to the enactment xiii. if.

i Vs. 42b seems to be due to the redactor (Rd) who takes such an interest in posterity ; it is introduced as a supplement to 42a. So Budde; cf. Reuss, La Bible, in loc. Vs. 42a stood perhaps originally after vs. 27.


on the

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