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impossible to account for its incorporation here unless vv. 4ff. were also included in it to give it some color of appropriateness. Finally, as we have such strong reason to suppose its opening lines to have been those of vs. 2, the fact of its attachment here, instead of after vs. 21, is unaccountable, unless vs. I is an original fragment of J parallel to vv.

20f. (E). The verbal correspondence is not unexampled, but recurs in the Words of the Covenant,” Ex. xxiii. 14-19=xxxiv. 22–26, and parts of the Song of Balaam, Num. xxiiff.

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(E) And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the 17 people go, that God led them not by the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near ; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt : but God led the people about, by the way 18 of the wilderness by the Red Sea : and the children of Israel went up armed out of the land of Egypt. 16 And Moses took 19 the bones of Joseph with him : for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you ; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you.*

(P) And they took their journey from 17 Succoth, and encamped 20 (J) in Etham, in the edge of the wilderness. 18 And Yahweh 21 went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; that they might go by day and by night: the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by 22 night, departed not from before the people.

(P) And Yahweh spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the 2 14 children of Israel, that they turn iback and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Mig dol and the sea, before Baal-zephon : over

16 Gen. 50 : 241. '1712 : 37: 18 Nu. 10: 34 ; 14: 14 ; cf. 14: 19.

113: 20.

*The use of Elohim is no longer obligatory upon E, nor does he commonly employ it in his own composition ; rather he seems, like Rp and Rje, to favor personally “ Yahweh.” He seems, however, not to have taken the trouble to alter the name Elohim where employed in his source. Hence the use of Elohim without specific reason is still a criterion where it occurs. For similar retention of a source peculiarity cf. Dt. iv. 32 with Gen. 1. 27, and see Budde, Bibl. Urgeschichte, pp. 487ff., 497.

3 (E) against it shall ye encamp by the sea. And Pharaoh will

say* of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, 4 (P) the wilderness hath shut them in. ?And I will harden

Pharaoh's heart, and he shall follow after them; and I will get me honor upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; and the Egyp

tians shall know that I am Yahweh, And they did so. 5 (J) And it was told the king of Egypt that the

people were 'fled : and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was changed towards the people, and they

said, What is this we have done, that we have let 6 Israel go from serving us? And he made ready his 7 (E) chariot, and took his people with him : and he took

six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt 8 (P) [ ... ] and captains over all of them. [...] 'And

Yahweh hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel : for the children of Israel 9 went out &with an high hand. And the Egyptians pursued after

them, all the horses [and] chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen,

and his army, and overtook them Rencamping by the sea, beside Pi10 (J) hahiroth, before Baal-sephon. And when Pharaoh

19drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and

(E) they were sore afraid : land the children of Israel II (J) cried out unto Yahweh. [...] And they said unto

Moses, Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness ? 1?where

fore hast thou dealt thus with us, to bring us forth 12 out of Egypt? Is not this the word that we spake

unto thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians ? For it were better for us

to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the 13 wilderness. And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye

not, stand still, and see the salvation of Yahweh,

27 : 3-5. 312: 33f. Gen. 3 : 13 ; 4 : 10. 51:11;ch. 5. 6Jos. 24:6. Vs. 4.

Nu. 15:30 ; 33 : 3. 'Vs. 2. !Gen. 12 : 11; 33 : 1, 5. 11 Jos. 24 : 7. !25: 22 ; Nu. I1;11. 135: 21. 14 Gen. 49: 18 ; 1 Sam. 14 : 45.

* If vs. 3 is assigned to E (see Art. III. in loc.) we must read “ said."

18 And 17

which he will work for you to-day : for the Egyptians whom ye have seen to-day, ye shall see them again no more forever. "Yahweh shall fight for you, and ye 14 shall hold your peace.*

(P) (E) And Yahweh said unto Moses, Wherefore criest 15 (P) thou unto me ? speak unto the children of Israel, that they (E) go forward. And lift thou up thy rod, [...] and 16 17 stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go into the midst of the sea on dry ground. 1, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall go [in] after them: and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen. And 18 the Egyptians shall know that I am Yahweh, when I have gotten me honour upon Pharaoh upon his chariots, and upon his horse(E) men.—And the 19angel of God, which went before the 19 (J) camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and (E) stood behind them : and it came between the camp of 20 Egypt and the camp of Israel ; and there was the cloud and (J) the 2odarkness, t-yet gave it light by night: and the (P) one came not near the other all the night. (J) Moses stretched out his hand over the sea ; "and Yahweh caused the sea to go [back] by a strong east wind all (P) the night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. And the children of Israel went into the midst of 22 the sea upon the dry ground : 2and the waters were a wall unto

21 And 21

16Vs. 25. 187:20; 9: 22f.; 10 : 12f. 21f ; 17: 58.9; Is. 10 : 26. 17Vv. 21, 26f. 18Vs.4. 1913: 176 ; cf. 13: 21f. and vs. 196. 30 Jos. 24 : 7. 2! Vs. 16. 2210 : 13, 19 ; Nu. 11:31. 23C1. 15: 8.

* The motive for Israel's return from the wilderness to Egyptian territory in P is more theological than historical ; but in E a reason is given why they were brought to the sea. (cf. xiii. 17 and Jos. xxiv. 6). In J, however, we are left to infer that the people consent to leave the Isthmus and be led to the edge of the sea, south of the usual road, because they know that in the absence of opposition the gulf is fordable, as at the present day.

† The displ ement of vv. 19a, 20 is inferred from Josh, xxiv. 7, where the putting of darkness between Israel and Egypt is the response to the people's cry to Yahweh. The text of vs. 20b is probably corrupt, and the translation is uncertain.

23 them on their right hand, and on their left. And the Egyptians

pursued, and went in after them into the midst of the sea, all Pha24 (J) raoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen. And it came

to pass in the morning watch, that Yahweh looked forth upon the host of the Egyptians through the

%pillar of fire and of cloud, and discomfited the host 25 (E) of the Egyptians. And he took off their chariot

(J) wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of Israel ;

26 for Yahweh fighteth for them against the Egyptians. 26

(P) 27 And Yahweh said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, 27 upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen. And Moses

(J) stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its strength when the morning appeared ; and the

Egyptians fled against it; and Yahweh overthrew the 28 (P) Egyptians in the midst of the sea. And the waters

returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, even all the

(J) host of Pharaoh that went in after them into the sea, 28there 29 (P) remained not so much as one of them. But the

children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea;

and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and 30 (J) on their left. 29Thus Yahweh saved Israel that day

out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the 31 (E) Egyptians dead upon the sea shore. And Israel

saw the 30 great work which Yahweh did upon the Egyptians, and the people 31feared Yahweh ; and they believed in Yah

weh, and in 82his servant Moses.* 15 (J) "Then sang Moses and the children of Israel

this song unto Yahweh, and spake, saying,

34 Gen. 18 : 16; 19:28 ; 26:8. 25Vs. 19. 36Vs. 14.

27Vv. 16, 2I. 208 : 31 ; 10: 15, 19. 29Vs. 13. 303 : 19; 6:1. s1 Gen. 20 : 11 ; 42 : 18 ; Ex. 1. 17, 21 : Jos. 24 : 14. 32 Nu. 12 : 7f. ; Dt. 34 : 5 ; Jos. 1 : 2. 1Cf. vs. 20f. ; Nu. 21 : 17 ; Jos. 10 : 12 ; Jud. 5 : 1.

* The separation of vs. 31 from the context is tentative rather than necessary. There seems, however, to be some reduplication of thought as well as language ; cf. 30b. with 31a, and note the repetition of the subject. The references indicate the linguistic reasons.


I will sing unto Yahweh, for he hath triumphed

gloriously : The horse and his rider hath he athrown into the

sea. (Ps) 3Yahweh is my strength and song, And he is become my 4salvation : This is my God, and I will praise him ; My father's God, and I will exalt him. Yahweh is a man of war :

3 Yahweh is his name. Pharaoh's chariots and his host hath he 5cast into the sea :

4 And his chosen captains are sunk in the Red sea. The deeps cover them :

5 They went down into the depths like a stone. Thy right hand, O Yahweh, is glorious in power,

6 Thy right hand, O Yahweh, dasheth in pieces the enemy. And in the greatness of thine excellency thou overthrowest them that rise 7

up against thee: Thou sendest forth thy wrath, it consumeth them as stubble. 6And with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were piled up,

8 7The floods stood upright as an heap; The deeps were congealed in the heart of the sea. The enemy said,

9 I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil : My lust shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them. 8Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them: They sank as lead in the mighty waters. Who is like unto thee, O Yahweh, among the gods ? Who is like thee, glorious in holiness, Fearful in praises, doing wonders ? Thou stretchest out thy right hand, 9The earth swallowed them. Thou in thy mercy hast led the people which thou hast redeemed: 13 Thou hast guided them in thy strength to thy holy habitation. 19The peoples have heard, they tremble :

14 Pangs have taken hold on the inhabitants of Philistia. Then were the 11 dukes of Edom amazed ;

15 The mighty men of Moab, trembling taketh hold upon them : All the inhabitants of Canaan are melted away. Terror and dread falleth upon them; 3Is. 12 : 2. 414 : 13. 5Ct. vs. 1.



I 2


614 : 21.

914 : 22. 854 : 27. Nu. 16 : 32. 10 Jos. 10 : 2. 11 Gen. 36 : 21.

2Ct. vs. 4.

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