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13they said one to another, What is it? for they wist not what

(P) it was. And Moses said unto them, It is the bread which 16 (E) Yahweh hath given you to eat. This is the thing which

Yahweh hath commanded, Gather ye of it every man accord(P) ing to his eating, an omer a head, according to the number

of your persons, shall ye take it, every man for them which are in 17 (Rp) his tent. And the children of Israel did so, and gathered some 18 more, some less. And when they did mete it with an omer, he that gathered

much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack ; they gathered (P) every man according to his eating.* —And Moses said unto them 19–20 (E)—+ Let no man leave of it till the morning. Notwith

standing they hearkened not unto Moses ; but some of them

left of it until the morning, and it bred worms and stank : 21 and Moses was wroth with them. And they gathered it morn

ing by morning, every man according to his eating : and 22 (Rp) when the sun waxed hot. it melted. And it came to pass,

that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, 17two omers for each 23 one : and all the 18rulers of the congregation came and told Moses. And he

said unto them, 19 This is that which Yahweh hath spoken, Tomorrow is a solemn rest, a holy sabbath unto Yahweh : 20bake that which ye will bake, and

seethe that whiih ye will seethe ; and all that remaineth over lay up for you to 24 be kept until the morning. And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses 25 bade: and it did not stink, neither was there any worm therein. And Moses

said, Eat that to-day: for to-day is a sabbath unto Yahweh : to-day ye shall 26

not find it in the field. 21 Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day 27 is the sabbath, in it there shall be none. And it came to pass on the seventh

day, that there went out some of the people for to gather, and they found 28 none. And Yahweh said unto Moses, 29 How long refuse ye to keep my com29 mandments and my laws ? See, for that Yahweh hath given you the sabbath,

therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days ; abide ye every 30 man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. So the 31 (P) people rested on the seventh day. 28 And the house of Israel

called the name thereof Manna : 24and it was like coriander

seed, white ; and the taste of it was like wafers [made] with 13Dt. 8: 3, 16; 3cf. vs. 31.


1538. 26; Nu, 1:2, 18, 20 etc. 16Ct. vs. 23b. 17 Vs. 16b. 18 Nu. 7: 2, 3 etc. 1oCf. vv. 16, 32. 20 Nu. 11:8; cf. vs. 21. 2120 : gf. Nu. 14 : 11, 26 ; Jos, 18 : 3. 23 Vs. 15. 24 Nu. II : 7.

* Harmonistic redaction. The miraculous adjustment of the amount explains how it could be true that “they gathered it every man according to his eating ” (E), and at the same time that they gathered “ an omer a head” (P).

† Insert after vs. 14.

! 4 Vs. 4.

22 10: 3, 7;


(Rp) honey. And Moses said, 25 This is the thing which Yahweh hath 32 commanded, Let an omerful of it be kept for your generations ; that they may see the bread wherewith I fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt. And Moses said unto Aaron, Take a pot, 33 and put an omerful of manna therein, and lay it up 26 before Yahweh, to be kept for your generations. As Yahweh commanded Moses, so Aaron laid it 34 up 27 before the Testimony, to be kept*

(E) And the children of Israel did eat the manna forty 35 (P) years, until they came to a land inhabited ; 28they did eat 36 the manna, until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan. (Rp) Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah..

(P) ?And all the congregation of the children of Israel jour- 17 neyed from the wilderness of Sin, by their journeys, according to (E) the commandment of Yahweh, and pitched in Rephidim: and there was no water for the people to drink. 2Wherefore the people strove with Moses, and said, Give us water that we may drink. And Moses said unto them, Why strive ye with (J) me ?-wherefore do ye tempt Yahweh - And the 3 people thirsted there for water; and the people murmured against Moses, and said, "Wherefore hast thou brought us up out of Egypt, to kill 'us and our chil(E) dren and our cattle with thirst? [. . .] *And Moses 4 cried unto Yahweh, saying, What shall I do unto this people ? they be almost ready to stone me. And Yahweh said 5 unto Moses, Passon before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel ; and thy rod, wherewith thou øsmotest the river, take in thine hand, and go [...]. + Behold I will 6 stand before thee there upon the rock in 'Horeb; and thou shall 8smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it,

25Vv. 16, 23. 26Vv. 9, 34 : Nu. 17 : 9f. 2727 : 21 ; 30 : 36etc. : Nu. 17 : 8, 10. 28 Jos. 5: 12. INu. 10 : 12f. ; 33 : 2etc. 2 Nu. 20 : 3

510: 315 : 24 ; Nu. 14: 2. 414 : 1f. ; Nu. 20 : 5. 9. 67: 20. 13:1. "Cf. Nu. 20 : 1-13.

* The authenticity of vv. 32–34 is doubtful. The occasion for their insertion appears to be the uncertainty of “ the thing which Yahweh hath commanded ”; cf. vv. 16 and 23. In spite of their peculiarly Deuteronomic interest in posterity there is no cogent reason for denying the verses to P2 the story be placed subsequently to the erection of the Tabernacle.

† The name, or description, of the place to which Moses is to “go” is missing; doubtless for harmonistic reasons, as in Gen. xxxi. 25. The story of vv. that the people may drink. And Moses did so 'in the sight 7 of the elders of Israel. And he called the name of the place

19 Massah and Meribah, because of the striving of the children (J) of 11Israel and because they tempted Yahweh, saying is Yahweh among us, or not?




Under the above heading it is necessary to group together some of the most remarkable products of R's compilatory necessities, the story of the fight with Amalek and of Jethro's visit being obviously inserted where they do not belong. Following, however, the text as we have it, we learn first of Amalek's attack at Rephidim. Joshua marshalls the forces of Israel, while Moses, accompanied by Aaron and Hur, wields the rod of God upon the hill-top. The outstretched rod secures the victory to Israel, and Moses commemorates it by the altar of Yahweh-nissi ; xvii. 816. Jethro visits Moses, bringing the wife and sons of the latter. After salutations and a sacrifice “ before God,” Jethro, on the morrow, sees Moses occupied with judgment and “making known the statutes of God and his laws.” He recommends the appointment of judges and officers. This done, he departs to tis own land; ch. xviii. Israel arrives at Sinai. Moses ascends the mount and receives a message for the people, xix. 1-7. He returns again to the mount and is given directions preliminary to a theophany, and these the people carry out ;

97: 20. 10 Dt. 6 : 16;9: 22; 33 : S. "33 : 14 ; 34 : 9; Nu. II : 20. Ibff. opens without a specified locality, and the scene may perhaps originally have been simply the wilderness route. But the place to which Moses betakes himself is Meribah, so designated, however, as not to anticipate the etymology

This Meribah (identical with Meribah-Kadesh of Num. xx. ?) would seem to have been at the foot of Horeb (vs. 6; cf. Dt. ix. 21). Both Massah and Meribah are names of sacred wells, which from their true etymology (Kadesh=“ sacred”; Meribah="waters of controversy”; Massah="place of trial”) must have been resorted to for divination and oracular decision of. questions, as at the sacred well of Daphne (see, W. Robertson Smith, “Religion of the Semites,” pp. 156ff.). So Gen. xiv. 7 En Mishpat=" fountain of judgment."

in vs. 7.

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8--15. On the third day the people are assembled at the foot of the mount, which burns and smokes as Yahweh descends upon it. The theophany begins ; vv. 16-19. Yahweh descends upon Sinai, summons Moses, and reiterates in different form the instructions previously given. Moses protests that this is already done; but is again sent down to charge the people; vv. 20–25.

In xvii. 8-16 and ch. xviii. we have abundant evidence of the presence of E. The style and standpoint are unmistakable. The mention of the “ rod of God” as Moses' divine equipment connects xvii. 8–16 with the previous series of E pas ages, in which the same agency invariably appears; that of “ Aaron and Hur” as Moses' coadjutors, with Joshua as his lieutenant, connect the passage no less certainly with a subsequent series in which the same characters appear (cf. xxiv. 13f). Only it is highly improbable that Joshua should here be brought in for the first time, unintroduced, when in subsequent passages (xxiv. 13 ; xxxiii. 11) he is introduced to the reader as “ Moses' minister," and as “ a young man, the son of Nun, Moses' minister.” Moreover we scarcely expect an attack from Amalek at this point in the story, where Israel is not seeking a settlement, but only visiting a sacred locality, even if the shrine were in Amalekite territory. But Amalek according to Num. xiii. 29; xiv. 25, 43, 45 is rather differently located, and from the same chapters it would appear that Israel came into collision with Amalek after turning northward from Horeb. Again the top of the hill,” vv. 9f., is a meaningless expression in the present connection. But cf. Num. xiv. 40. The rôle of Moses here is that of an old man, and that of Joshua of a mature and trusted warrior, to whom the burden of future wars is to be transmitted, vs. 14. Only“ Rephidim,” vs. 8, remains as the undoubted occasion for the insertion of the fragment at this point, and “ Rephidim " in vs. I, as we have already seen, is only from P, or at most originally from J, its connection with E's narrative at this point being purely redactional. Dt. xxv. 17-19 (“as ye came forth”) is not in conflict with the idea of a displacement of Ex. xvii. 8–16; cf. Dt. xxiv. 9, and to this conclusion the facts impel us. The inference must be that in E Rephidim was a station reached after removal from Horeb, the story having been removed hither by Rp to make vs. 8 agree with vs. 1.*

It is quite needless to accumulate evidences of the E origin of ch. xviii.

* This passage xvii. 8-16 is one of several which tend strongly to show that our E of the Hexateu is really an E?, and this may well account for the displacement of xvii. 8–16, which might then be the work of E (E2) himself. Budde in fact thinks the battle presupposed by xviii. 8 (" all the travail "); but the first task must be the extrication of E (E2).

The habitual use of Elohim, “ Jethro " as Moses' father-in-law, the position of Aaron, the “ causes brought to God ” (cf. xxii. 9; xxiv. 14) and interest in the administration of justice, (cf. chh. xxif.), are all characteristic of E, the whole story of the appointment of judges and officers being in a measure parallel to iv. 10-16 (J) where the priesthood (represented by Aaron) are entrusted with the functions of interpreters of the law. Only in vv. 1-4 are there manifest traces of Rje (see note in loc.) and in vv. 8n a certain redundancy, which may indicate the presence of a second


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It is certain that I had also an account of the coming of “Hobab the son of Reuel, Moses' father-in-law” to meet him at Sinai ; for in Num. x. 29-32 Moses is engaged in persuading this Hobab to accompany them to the place of which Yahweh had said to Israel, I will give it you.” It appears further from Jud. iv. II, that contrary to Ex. xviii. 27 he actually did go. As we shall see, the true position of Ex. xviii. is practically the same as Num. X. 29. Under these circumstances it seems extremely probable that Rje may have preserved in ch. xviii. 1-12, some traces of J's parallel. The language of vs. 7 in fact shows affinity with J (see refs.), and one can hardly consider it natural that Jethro should be already talking with Moses, vs. 6, before Moses has gone out to meet him ; vs. 7.

Vv. 8-11 contain the real kernel of the story, which, as so often happens, proves to have a poetic nucleus, and here the recurrence of “Yahweh in contrast with Elohim throughout the rest of the chapter, together with the manifest redundancy in vv. 9f. seems to indicate the presence of J. In the absence of decisive criteria it is impossible to do more than indicate by alteration of the type in vs. 7 and 10f. the occasion for an analysis for which, as yet, the final clew is wanting.

It appears distinctly in the latter part of ch. xviii. that the time is near the close of the stay at the mount of God.” In vs. 23 the departure is already in contemplation, and the natural inference from vs. 27 is that Jethro returns to his own land because the people are about breaking camp. Moreover vs. 12 (“ before God” cf. xxi. 6; xxii. 9) indicates that a regular place of worship has been established ; " the statutes of God and his laws,” vs. 16, can hardly be any other than the “judgments ” of ch. xxif., or at least those of xxiv. 12 (cf. vs. 20); finally we have an unmistakable reference to this whole story in Dt. i. 9-18, where it is expressly stated that this was after the command to depart from Horeb (Dt. i. 6–8; cf. Ex. xxxii. 34) and immediately before its execution (Dt. i. 19). The position thus determined for ch. xviii. as its original one is a matter of importance to the analysis, as indicating the relation into which

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