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it thus brings to its expected conclusion, it is hard to believe that any competent or candid mind could reject the overwhelming probability that we have here not two separate writers, one beginning where the other left off, referring constantly to his predecessor, using identically the same style and language, system, purpose, material, and occupying the same standpoint ; but one and the same hand. But even apart from these important criteria it is safe to leave the question of the continued identity of the document distinguished as P2 in Genesis to simple perusal of the sequel herewith afforded to the source as extricated in Genesis. Whether this document stands alone in ExodusJoshua, or whether, as in Genesis, it has been more or less incongruously associated with other material will appear in the process of analysis.
There is no indication in this document P that its purpose is not fully attained and its subject matter exhausted with the establishment of Israel in the Land of Promise “ according to their inheritances,” and in full possession of all their peculiar institutions. Neither is there the least trace in the books of Judges, Kings and Samuel of any further fragments. The story of these books is indeed rewritten in the priestly sense in a later work, which in many respects has a striking resemblance to P, viz., the Book of Chronicles—Ezra-Nehemiah. But the compiler of this work makes a new beginning with “ Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared, Enoch, Methuselah,” etc., and is clearly independent of P, though controlled by his ideas. There is, in short, every reason to believe that P, as analyzed from Genesis to Joshua, is a complete work from which scarcely anything is missing. As extricated by practical consensus of criticism it could, therefore, be already characterized to some extent, in “the Genesis of Genesis” (p. 55ff.), though we may have somewhat to add in our present discussion of the documents, as their individuality emerges upon further analysis.
The Analyses prefixed to each subsection of the present volume aim to show that the internal discrepancies of Genesis continue to appear throughout Exodus, a considerable part of Numbers,
and a smaller part of Deuteronomy. Hereafter there may be occasion to show that the same is true of Joshua. Are then these stories of the Exodus, with which the Priestly Lawbook has been filled in, a continuation of the documents J and E already extricated in Genesis, and which in their combined form, JE, served as source to P? To answer this question we must apply the same tests as applied just now to P.
The analysis of Genesis gave a document known to critics as E, attributed by all to the Ephraimite monarchy. This work seems to begin with the career of Abraham as prophet” (Gen. xx. 7) called by God out of the midst of a heathen ancestry to the “ land of the Amorite," which God promises to his descendants when, after four generations of oppression "in a land that is not theirs,” they should come thither again, and
the iniquity of the Amorite should be full.” A few stories of Abraham's relations with the Philistines, duplicating those related by J of Isaac, explain in E the origin and names of the sacred wells of the Negeb; while one regarding Hagar and Ishmael and the birth of Isaac, likewise a duplicate, plays upon these names. The story of Abraham has here in addition only a single, characteristic, concluding narrative, peculiar to this source. It relates how "God proved Abraham " by commanding the sacrifice of Isaac, who thus appears only in his boyhood and on his death-bed. Isaac's sons quarrel, but Jacob, fleeing, receives a divine revelation at Bethel and vows service to the God of this place, who becomes his protector in exile and gives him children and wealth. On his return he founds the shrines of Ramoth-Gilead, Mahanaim, Peniel and the pillar' and altar by Shechem. At Shechem he places a parallel to P's story of the Cave of Machpelah. For 100 kesitahs of silver Jacob buys a parcel of ground at the hand of the children of Hamor, the father of Shechem, but subsequently takes the city “out of the hand of the Amorite, with his sword and with his bow.” His heathen wives “ put away their strange gods” under the oak at Shechem, and Jacob builds the altar at Bethel, consecrates the oak of Allon-bacuth, and erects the Pillar of Rachel's grave.
The career of Joseph concludes the patriarchal epoch. “ Joseph as a lad was feeding the flock with his brethren.” His prophetic dreams excite the envy of his brethren, but when they have cast him in a pit and a kidnapping band of Midianites sell him a slave in Egypt this prophetic power exalts him to the highest place under Pharaoh. Joseph sends for his father and brethren to share his prosperity ; the dying Jacob blesses Ephraim and Manasseh, and bestows Shechem as a special gift "above his brethren " upon Joseph ; then after the patriarch's death Joseph forgives his brethren, explaining to them the providence of God. At great length and in most attractive colors the career of this “ master of dreams ” is depicted to the end. The story concludes with a repetition of the prophetic vision of Abraham:
“And Joseph said unto his brethren, I die: but God will surely visit you, and bring you up out of this land unto the land which he sware to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob. And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you, and ye shall carry up my bones from hence.”
Again, as in P, it is conceivable that the author of this document did not live to see the fulfilment of the predicted events, but simply recorded what had been revealed to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as one miraculously guided to select just that which comes to subsequent fulfilment. But it is very surprising that a subsequent historian in relating the fulfilment of what E looks forward to, should employ the style, language and all other peculiarities of E, even where telling his own story, so that none could tell from the narrative, where one ends and his successor begins; whereas in giving us the sequel to the Priestly Lawbook of Genesis his style should be indistinguishable from that of this radically different document. It is conceivable that there was no sequel to the account of the promise to Abraham, the bequest of Jacob, or the oath of Joseph. But in point of fact, reading right on in the composite narrative of Exodus, we find an uninterrupted sequel to this story, characterized by the same style and expressions and the same peculiar use of “ God” for Yahweh. From the career of Joseph it passes at once to the career of Moses. His birth and boyhood are painted in the same sympathetic colors as the youth of Isaac and Joseph, and serve to illustrate the depth of humiliation to which Israel had fallen in Egypt after the death of Joseph. The youthful Moses performs an exploit of valor in favor of his enslaved countrymen, but, repelled by them, flees to Midian and marries there. God reveals himself to him from “ Horeb the mount of God.” Then follows the explanation, so closely paralleled in P, of the peculiar use of Elohim as the divine name, a practice of E hitherto unexplained. As P in Ex. vi. 2 makes clear the reason why previously in that document, Elohim, or El Shaddai, is used to the exclusion of Yahweh, but thereafter uniformly Yahweh, so in almost identical terms in Ex. iii. we read the original, both of P's story and his practise. Thereafter Moses and Aaron his brother are sent to demand from Pharaoh release for Israel, and Moses receives a wonder-working rod, whereby after inflicting five plagues upon Egypt the Red Sea is divided and Israel passes through, while Pharaoh and his host are overwhelmed. E has thus far no legislation. Even the institution of the Passover is not so much as mentioned. But the prophecy of Joseph is not forgotten. The Exodus is related in terms whose significance points both forward and backward :
“Now when Pharaoh had let the people go God led the people about by the way of the wilderness by the Red Sea And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him; for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you."
After “Miriam the prophetess” has sung their deliverance at the Red Sea, the “proving ” of Israel begins at Massah with the gift of manna, and the gift of water brought from the rock by Moses' rod at Meribah. Here at Horeb “ God prove" them, pronouncing in voice of thunder the moral law as summed up in the Ten Commandments. These he writes with his own finger upon the tables of stone. The career of Joshua begins here ; for now as a youth he serves Moses, as later Samuel does for Eli, and ascends with him to the presence of God. Israel, entrusted to the care of Aaron falls into idolatry, but after
chastisement repents. Now, in place of the Covenant of the Ten Words, the record of which was shattered by Moses, a ritual covenant is enacted, and a portable sanctuary prepared, The youthful Joshua becomes its hierophant. Israel is dismissed under guidance of God's angel. At the instance of Jethro a civil organization is also effected, and, on Moses' petition, God takes of the spirit of prophecy which was upon him, and pours it upon 70 elders ; but Moses' prophetic preëminence is vindicated even against Aaron and Miriam, and later his civil supremacy against Dathan and Abiram. Arrived at Kadesh the people are discouraged at the report of twelve men sent to reconnoitre the land ; they murmur, and repent again, but incur disaster at Hormah through presumption. Forty years pass by in the steppes of Kadesh, where Miriam dies. They endeavor to reach the country east of Jordan, but are refused passage by Edom and Moab, make the circuit, fight with Sihon the Amorite, and occupy his land. Balaam, called to curse Israel, blesses. Reuben and Gad receive the land of Sihon. At Shittim by Jordan Moses gives his farewell admonitions to all Israel, delivers the civil lan given him at Horeb to the elders, to be solemnly enacted by covenant at Mount Ebal and inscribed on great stones ; then, after receiving a charge for Joshua as his successor, he dies, and is buried in Moab. No such prophet has since appeared in Israel.
The career of Joshua is taken up without interruption (Jos. i. if. 1of.) and includes all the story of the conquest. A miraculous passage of the Jordan gives access to Jericho, whose walls fall before the invaders. The sin of Achan, the Judean, brings a reverse at Ai, but is expiated, and the capture of Ai and Bethel opens up the heart of the country. At Mount Ebal Joshua enacts the law of Moses as directed. The battle of Gibeon against a coalition of the south Amorite kings leads Joshua to the rapid conquest of all southern Palestine; the defeat of a similar coalition under Jabin, king of Hazor, secures him all the north. The conquest complete, Joshua assembles all Israel " at Shechem," recapitulates the story of the divine dealings as related in the document E from the call of