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doubles back, and probably perishes through | is a necessity of its nature. We might, perthis excess of prudence.

haps, succeed in entirely banishing these inDestroying foxes with firearms is much stincts by submitting the animal to prolonged more easy. A certain number of sportsmen domestication during successive generations, occupy the paths of a wood which is known but it cannot be brought about by a few to contain foxes. The vermin, started by years' training. This is the reason why it some cur dogs, take to their runs, thus is so difficult to keep an adult fox: the offering an easy shot; if they escape, the depredations that it never ceases to commit sportsmen have usually only their own un- are a continual source of embarrassment to skilfulness to blame.

its owner, who at last, to end the annoyance, When the fox runs to earth, and obsti- ultimately gets rid of it. nately refuses to be unkennelled, terriers are The flesh of the fox exhales so repulsive often successfully employed, which, crawl- an odor that it is even repugnant to many ing into the lair, drive the possessor out. animals. Some people, however, use it,

Sometimes Reynard resists all attempts to principally those in vine-growing districts, expel him. There is nothing then to be done where it feeds on grapes. It is stated that but to smoke him out or to lay open his re- this offensive smell can be readily got rid of treat with the pickaxe. The first operation, by exposing the flesh to a freezing temperbeing the simplest, is generally preferred. ature. All the openings of the burrow are closed, Hitherto we have been treating of the red except that to windward ; into this is intro- fox. In America it is also known, being found duced, as deeply as possible, a sulphur match; from the 35th to the 55th parallel of latitude, bushes and leaves are collected in front of the and from the Atlantic seaboard to the Missishole and set on fire. The smoke, blown by sippi River; also in Oregon and British Cothe wind, penetrates to the bottom of the bur- lumbia. There is a slight difference in coloring row, carrying with it the sulphurous vapors. between the European and American, which The subterranean cavity being completely some naturalists have taken advantage of to pregnated, the smoke returns against the consider as just cause for classing them as repwind; the last opening is then hermetically resentatives of different species. In our opinclosed, and things are left in this state until ion, no pretext is obtainable to deem them the next day, when the fox is sure to be otherwise than varieties. The black fox, so found dead near one of the orifices. valuable for its fur, belongs to the red fox

When foxes overrun a country more ener- family and is only a chance production, in getic measures are had recourse to in order to the same litters, occasionally, cubs both black destroy them—viz., by traps and poison. and red having been found. The nobles of

We havo seen, by the history of the Chá- Russia, the mandarins of China and the khans teau-Thierry fox, that this carnivore is sus- of Tartary value a black foxskin above all furs, ceptible of being tamed. It is nevertheless and the price a perfect pelt in prime condition necessary to make a reserve. Its sanguinary fetches is fabulous. Russia, Siberia and the instincts are invincible; the desire for blood colder regions of North America alone produce



this valuable animal, and they are so much Among the foxes of the New World, the sought after that but for the severity of the two principal noticeable species are the gray climate few would continue to exist.

and cross or kit foxes. The first inhabits The Arctic or blue fox inhabits the whole North America; its fur, although less esextent of both continents beyond the 69th teemed than that of the Arctic fox, is nevdegree of latitude—that is to say, Russia, ertheless valuable. The second variety is Siberia and the high regions of North Amer- distributed over the United States and Parica. The pelage of this species is very long, aguay.

It is a venturesome, courageous soft and thick, and is sometimes white, fre- little animal : during the night it will apquently of a gray slate color with a tinge proach the bivouacs of travellers and gnaw of blue. It is the object of a considerable their leather trappings or steal anything

. trade.

edible lying around the encampment. This animal differs considerably from the

GUILLAUME Louis FIGUIER. ordinary fox in its habits. It prefers naked hills to woods, and makes its burrow on their southern slope. It is not afraid of water, and

DISTANCE frequently swims rivers and arms of the sea

W to surprise aquatic birds or obtain their eggs. How many leagues of weary land and

A trait which is particularly characteristic of the blue fox, because it is exceptional in Can place thy spirit far apart from mine? the order of Carnivora, is its custom of mi

Can lure from distance dim some silent grating in crowds when game fails in a coun- sign try it has hitherto occupied. After remaining To set my soul enfranchised far from theeabsent three or four years it again returns. Afar from eyes that never leave me free,

, The female Arctic fox brings forth seven From tones that stir my heart like mountor eight young toward the month of May. ing wine, It is a lucky chance for a hunter when he From presence thralling as some dream can capture some of these cubs, as he rears divine ? them and sells their fur as soon as it has Alas ! by night and day all stay with me. reached the period of its greatest beauty. Travellers relate that it is not unusual to There is no distance—not for those who meet in Scandinavia poor women who share know their care between their child and several

The silent countersign that makes them one, blue foxes.

Whose thoughts are messengers that burn Various other species of foxes inhabit Asia and Africa. We may particularly cite the

With love's fleet messages the winds outfennec, the smallest of its kind; to its enormous ears it owes its extreme acuteness of

Go, sail the seas! Go, seek the rising sun! hearing. It is found in the Algerian Sahara, Beyond my constant heart thou canst not go. Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia and Dongola.

and glow,



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T the theatrical-fund dinner | tice-hand.” In 1805 appeared his " Lay of given in Edinburgh in 1827, the Last Minstrel,” which literally took the Lord Meadowbank-who, as world by storm. There was no falling off of president, made the first pub- power or interest in

power or interest in “Marmion" and "The lic announcement of the au- Lady of the Lake,” the latter of which was thorship of the Waverley nov- at once one of the most popular poems ever els—spoke of Scott as “the written. Those which followed were by no mighty magician who rolled means equal to the poems just mentioned; back the current of time and but in them all he is remarkable for the conjured up before our living fearful reality of his battle-pieces and the senses the men and manners tenderness and refinement of his love-scenes.

of days which have long since Successful in his profession of the law and passed away. It is he who has conferred a in his publications, Scott purchased an estate new reputation on our national character and on the banks of the Tweed, near Melrose Abbestowed on Scotland an imperishable name." bey, and built a mansion, in which he lived

Walter Scott was born in Edinburgh on as a feudal proprietor. At Abbotsford he did the 15th day of August, 1771. His father the honors for the nation, cordially receiving was a writer to the Signet, and his mother the thousands who came to do holaage to his (Annie Rutherford) was the daughter of a genius and honor to his virtues. As he felt medical professor in the university of that his poetical powers lagging, he had as early city. Lame from his infancy, he was shut as 1805 made an essay in the fields of romanout from the usual sports of childhood and tic fiction, but the manuscript was thrown was a great reader, especially of poetry and aside until 1814, when he finished it and works of the imagination. His first efforts gave it to the world as Waverley, the first in literature were in the form of translations of that sadid series known as “the Wafrom the German. He made pleasant Eng- verley novels.” They need no eulogy:

" lish versions of the “ Erl-King,” and “Le- everybody has read them. Charming in denore" and " The Wild Huntsman" in 1796. scription, interesting in plot, they here and The next year he presented " Otto of Wittels- there contain full-length portraits of historic bach,” which was soon followed by “Götz characters—especially those of the kings and von Berlichingen." In 1802 he issued the the queens of England and of Scotland—that Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, a collec- may be said to be truer than history itself. tion in verse of ballads, traditions and old Involved in pecuniary embarrassments by Scottish legends, which was very acceptable the failure of the Ballantynes and of Conto the pride of the Scottish people. These stable & Co., Scott found himself, in honor were, however, only the trials of his “pren- if not in law, respousible for the payment of




about half a million dollars. He manfully peared in 1856; within the same period he resolved to write himself free, and almost published three works in proseThe Thames succeeded. But his powers were overtasked; and its Tributaries, Popular Delusions and a stroke of apoplexy made the brain torpid Longbeard, Lord of London : A Romance. and the hand nerveless. In search of health In 1814 he removed from London to Glashe made a fruitless journey to Malta and to gow, to succeed the late Mr. Weir as editor Italy, but to no purpose. Another stroke of the Argus, then a leading Liberal jo rnal caused him to hasten home to find the grata in the West of Scotland. During his resiquies patriæ which is so longed for by dying dence in Scotland he produced The Legends

He passed away from earth on the of the Isles, and Other Poems, A Series of 21st of September, 1832, the most renowned Twelve Letters to Lord Morpeth on the Eduof the illustrious men who died in that fatal cation of the People, and a volume entitled year. His son-in-law, Lockhart, has written The Scenery and Poetry of the English a full and exhaustive biography, to which the Lakes : A Summer Ramble. He also pubreader is referred for details of great value lished Voices from the Crowd, which conand interest.

tained the spirit-stirring song “The Good

Time Coming."

It was while Mr. Mackay remained in (HARLES MACKAY, a poet and jour- Scotland that he received from the Univer

a nalist, was born at Perth in 1814. sity of Glasgow the honorary degree of He is a descendant of an honorable High- LL.D. In 1847 he returned to the meland family, the Mackays of Strathnever. tropolis, where he succeeded to the political Having received the rudiments of his edu- editorship of the Illustrated London News. cation in London, he was in 1827 sent to a He published in 1848 his Town Lyrics; in school at Brussels, and he remained in Bel- 1850, Egeria ; or, The Spirit of Nature, and gium and Germany for so:ne years. On his Other Poems, to which was prefixed “An Inreturn to England he abandoned his inten- quiry into the alleged Anti-poetical Tendtion of entering the East India service, for encies of the Present Age." In 1851 he which he had been originally intended by edited for the Percy Society, with notes and his uncle, General Mackay, and devoted an introduction, an important antiquarian himself to literature. In 1835, after the work entitled A Collection of Songs and publication of a small volume of poems Ballads relative to the London 'Prentices which attracted the notice of Mr. John and Trades, and to the Affairs of London Black, he became connected with the Morn- generally, during the Fourteenth, Fifteenth ing Chronicle.

and Sixteenth centuries. He also edited While employed in his arduous duties as A Book of English Songs and A Book of sub-editor of a daily paper, Mr. Mackay pub- Scottish Songs, with Notes and Observations. lished two poetical works, The Hope of the In 1856, Dr. Mackay published the Lump of World and The Salamandrine, a third edi- Gold, and in the following year Under Green tion of which, illustrated by Gilbert, ap- | Leaves, two poetical works abounding with

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