Norman Stone Castles: The British Isles ,1066-1216
Descended from the Viking raiders who settled in Northern France under the leadership of Rollo in around 911, the Normans were amongst the most feared warriors of their time. Their territorial ambitions culminated in Duke William 1's conquest of England in 1066, but although victory at Hastings left the English crown in William's hands, Norman sovereignty remained far from established on the island. In order to consolidate his position, the new king built a series of fortifications across the country - this book covers all these developments from the early days of William I through to the fortifications of Henry II, Richard I and John.
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12th century 12th-century angles Anglo-Norman Anglo-Saxon archers arrow loops barbican barrel vaults basement battlements besieged blocked built by Henry buttresses CADW Castle Rising catapult centre chapel corner cross-wall Cumbria curtain wall defences ditch domestic buildings donjon door Dover Dover Castle early-13th century earth and timber earthworks enclosure enemy England English Heritage entrance erected first-floor floor forebuilding fortresses Framlingham garrison gate gatehouse Gateway ground Gwent hall keeps inner bailey inside King John kitchen knights lord motte motte and bailey mural chambers mural towers Norfolk Norman castles North Yorkshire Osprey Oxford Oxford Castle palisades passage perhaps polygonal probably protect reached rebels rectangular Richmond river Rochester Roman roof rooms royal royalist shell keep shutter side Skenfrith solar tower stairs Stephen stone castles stone tower thickness Tower of London town troops usually vault White Tower William wooden