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are entries commonly made. Spuriousness and mismanagement-in every instance, in the prevention of one or both these mischiefs will the use of the labour thus bestowed be found.
1. Members concurring, as evidenced by their signatures.-- Why this head ? - Answer. 1. That it may be seen, that the operations exhibited as performed, and the instruments exhibited as concurred in by the body, if a delegated body—or say a Committee-i.e. by the majority of the members present—had really for their sanction that concur. rence. 2. That, by every member of the body at large—the principal body-it may be known, not only of what number of the members of the delegated body, but by whạt individuals of that body, whatsoever has been done was approved : that thus that responsibility, on the reality and efficiency of which depends the only security for good management, may, in both its stages, be exhibited : viz. the responsibility of the delegated body as towards the principal body; and the responsibility of the principal body itself—as towards the body of which it forms a part, and but a part- viz. the universal body of the community at large.
2. Members present—Why this head ? Answer. 1. That it may be seen, that of the whole number of the members, by whom cognizance was taken of the business, the members concurring really formed the majority. ' 2. That, in case of dissent,
it may be seen, not only how many, but who, were on the dissenting side: and thus authorities be not only counted but weighed. · 3. Member, or other person officiating as Secretary. Why this head ? Answer. In every political body some one person at least is required, in whose in. stance constant, or otherwise adequate, attendance may be looked for: looked for, viz. in respect of that continuity and uninterruptedness of attention, which is so necessary for the securing—not only the regularity and consistency of their proceedings, but the authenticity of the operations and instruments, represented as duly sanctioned, viz. by having received the necessary concurrence.
Another sort of person, whose signature may, on an occasion of this sort, naturally be looked for—and whose signature is accordingly, on such occasions very commonly attached-is the Chairman. But in this instance, the necessity of such signature is not quite so constant and so urgent as in the other.-Why?-1. Because, if, at the meeting in question, of the delegated body in ques. tion, there be a person by whom the Chair is said to be taken—a person who is spoken of in the cha. racter of Chairman of the meeting, as, for the sake of good order an dauthenticity there ought in every instance to be,-of this person if by the Secretary any minutes are taken, mention is naturally made in the minutes : and if, as above, so it be that to the seyeral operations and instruments the signa: tures of the members concurring are attached, his signature will, of course, appear among the resta 2. Because, unless in the case of a special regula. tion to the contrary, that which, - be the number of successive meetings ever so great,-may very well happen, is-that, in any proportion of that number, the person officiating in the character of Chairman may be each time a different one :--and the performance of a duty may much more certainly be depended upon, at the hands of a person certain constantly stationed for that purpose, than at the hands of every individual of an everchanging multitude. .
4. Place of Meeting. Why this head? Answer. That it may be seen that, in each instance, whether fixed or varying, the place, at which the meeting was held, was the place at which all such members, as were inclined to attend, could be apprised that it was to be held : otherwise, such as should be disposed to attend, might in any num. bers be deprived of the opportunity, and, in a manner opposite to the wish and opinion of the many, the business be performed by the few, who were in the secret of the intended place.
5. Time of meeting.--Why this head? Answer. 1. For a reason, corresponding to that just mentioned under the head of place: viz. that it may be seen that every member, inclined to attend, had knowledge at what time, as well as what place to attend. 2. That no operation or instrument, to which no
due sanction was really attached, may ever, by the secretary, or any other person, be stated as hava ing actually been sanctioned.
If either of the place or of the day the mention be omitted,-much more if of both those necessarily concomitant circumstances all mention be omitted,
at the same time that all mention of any member or members, as having, on the occasion in question, been attendant, is omitted,—what is the consequence? That, by his own single act, with or without the instruction or suggestion of some irresistibly influential person behind the curtain, the secretary feels himself at liberty to manufacture what operation and instrument he pleases, That on no day, at any place where any such business, as is stated to have been done, could lawfully be done, it had ever happened to himself to be present, thus much is what to every member cannot but be perfectly well known. But, that on some day or other, at some proper place or other, a competent number of other members may not have been present, and giving their concurrence to this same business,--this is what, unless by inquiry, and that inquiry produced by suspicion, seldom can it happen to any member to be apprized of.*
* As to place and time of meeting—if those circumstances respectively, are variable, it is matter of necessity for information, -and even if they are fired it may be matter of convenience for remembrance,—that previous notices should be given: and, by the
III. Positions and Plan of Proof-Ends pursued
by the Institution—Means employed.
By a number of blanks observed in the dates, a suspicion was very soon produced, that all was not right: and, from a review thereupon made of the whole, the following conclusions seemed to follow : viz. 1. that, of the business represented by the Report as having been done by the persons to whom it is there ascribed, namely, the persons in whom the right of management is represented as being lodged, which persons are the two-and-fifty persons, half Bishops, half Laymen, and other Clergymen, of whom the managing body, styled The General Committee, is stated as composed, or, for this or that particular purpose, by SubCommittees nominated by that General Committee,—no part of the business has ever been done, but what has been mere matter of form :--for that every thing which has been in any degree material, and in particular every thing by which the exclusionary system has been established, have been the work of a single person, with or without occasional consultation with another ;-of one principal person, or of a secretary, acting under his orders :
avoiding to give such notice, the same frauds may be practised, as those which, when practised, may, by avoiding to make the requisite entries, be concealed. But the subject of notices belongs not to the present purpose.