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comes from school, is not a boy made what is called a Bible Clerk And this Bible Clerk, is it not his peculiar office in the Chapel every day, in the course of the service, to read, under the name of first or second lesson, a chapter or two out of the Bible ? Being old enough and in every respect good enough to read the word of God, is he not old enough and in every respect good enough to read your. Liturgy?-Whatsoever be propriety or decency in reading, is it of more importance that this Liturgy of your's, than that the word of God, should be read with propriety and decency?

The boy, Chorister boy, wears one sort of vestment: the boy, Bible Clerk, wears another sort of vestment. The Chorister boy’s vestment is the exact miniature of your Priest's Surplice. This very gown worn by the boy Bible Clerk-this, or something scarce distinguishable from it, is used by many a Priest to read his sermon in. Thus you have Precedent- Precedent for every thing. Reason—it were in vain to shew her to you : but Precedent—her improved substitute, you and your brother the Lawyer have ever numbered among your Gods.

$ 4.–2. Pay.

In this case, as in others, the use, and only use of pay is the obtaining, in sufficient quantity, service of the requisite quality and degree of goodness.

When, on such an occasion, and for such a purpose, mention is made of pay,—the fund, out of which it is considered as coming, must be understood to be a fund, composed of money extracted from such as,—but for the force of government applied in case of refusal,-would be unwilling contributors : in a word, levied by taxation. For, in so far as those, out of whose pocket it comes are willing, and for the obtaining of it no misrepresentation is employed, nor by the use thus made of it any injury done to any other person, no reason can be assigned for wishing to see any limitation set to their expenditure, in this shape more than in


other. But, for the purchase of service of the sort in question, viz. that which consists in the administering of in. struction of the sort in question,-is it fit that, at the expense of the whole population-willing and unwilling taken together-is it fit that money should be taken? Answer.-If it be only in respect of its effects, in relation to his own welfare, that each man's conduct were considered, perhaps not.

But, to the mischief, which, by the misconduct of any one man, and so in the case of each man, may, for want of such instruction, be produced, mischief operating in diminution of the happiness of others,*-scarcely can any limits be assigned.

Manifest it seems at any rate, that, if for instruction, in relation to this part of the field of thought and action, money ought not to be levied in the way of taxation, much less ought it for instruction, in relation to any other parts.

In so far as, among those who are in possession of receiving instruction of the sort in question, there are any who desire the continuance of it, this possession affords another reason-and that, it should seem, an irresistible one—for the continuance of it,—and thereby for the continuance of the

pay necessary for the obtainment of it. For the purpose of giving expression to the sort of relation, which ought to have place, between service, --sup

See Introd. Part II. & Mischiefs of Exclusion.

posed to be rendered, or required, by or on behalf of the public, on the one hand,--and pay, considered as employed, or employable, in the purchase of such service, on the other,-follow, in two corresponding pages, two corresponding sets of maxims : the one set expressive of those by which, in the view taken of the subject by the author of these pages, practice ought to be governed;* the other, expressive of those by which it has been thought that, to an extent more or less considerable, practice has been and continues to be actually governed.

* The principles from whence these maxims have been deduced, are to be found, mostly, if not completely, as far as recollection serves, in Mr. Benthani’s Traité des Peines et des Recompenses, as edited by Mr. Dumont, anno 1812, or thereabouts; but, the work not being at hand, no particular reference can be made to it.

To a student in the art and science of legislation,-if among the thousand official legislators, or thereabouts, with their expectant successors and unofficial critics, any such person there be, it might be a not altogether unuseful praxis, to take up the principles and maxims thus applied to Clerical, and make application of them to Lay, Offices.--As to the Edinburgh Reviewers, the principles laid down in the above book not being much more favourable to the interests of Placemen in expectancy than of Placemen in possession, they have, in their review of it, very prudently stopped at the subject of punishment, leaving that of reward untouched.


1. For the due rendering of service in respect of office, adequate aptitude and adequate inclination-aptitude, including mental powerare both necessary-neither suffices without the other.

2. For proof of the existence of adequate aptitude, and in particular in the case of a functionary, who by his office is required to pray and preach in public,-examination performed in public is, generally speaking, the only adequate security.

3. To the office, be it what it may, a quantity of pay, to any amount, may be attached, without adding either in quantity or in quality, to the value of the service, if any, which is rendered in respect of it.**

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4. Of the pay attached to office, the magnitude affords not of itself any security at all,—much less any adequate security, -for the rendering, in any quantity or of any quality, much less in apt quantity and quality, the service, for the rendering of which the office is professed to have been created and kept on foot.

5. Unless, in so far as adequate superiority, in respect of the value of the service performed, i. e. quantity and quality of it taken together, can be shewn to result from superiority of pay, the less the pay the better.

• See Notes, p. 244.


I *

1. For the rendering of service in respect of an Ecclesiastical (or Lay) office, neither aptitude nor inclination are necessary. It suffices that the desire of the pay allotted for the purchase of the service is strong enough to cause a man to engage to render it: and this whether he does or does not intend to render it."

2. For the possession of an Ecclesiastical (or Lay) office, neither aptitude nor inclination, with reference to the rendering of the service, for the purchase of which the office is professed to have been instituted and to be kept on foot, being necessary,—it is not necessary that, for the proof of the existence of adequate aptitude, any adequate security should be taken in any shape, nor therefore in the shape of public examination.?

3. The greater the quantity of pay attached to an Ec. clesiastical (or Lay) office, be it what it may, the greater in value,-quality and quantity taken together into the account,—will be the service rendered by the possessor of it. 3

4. The magnitude of the pay attached to an Ecclesiastical (or Lay) office, affords of itself an adequate security for the rendering, in adequate quality and quantity, the service, for the rendering of which the office is professed to have been created and kept on foot.

5. The greater the quantity of pay is, which is attached to an Ecclesiastical (or Lay) office, the better. No quantity, how great soever, requires for the justification of it any determinate ground for the supposition, that

• See Notes, p. 253.

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