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“ be surprized,” (says his Lordship), " at the rapid progress of

every species of sectaries (who are far from allowing the Minis“ ters of their congregations to fall in point of income to a level “ with the Curates of the Established Church,) when so large a " proportion of the Ministers of that Church are left in a state of 6 abject poverty.”—Superiority of pay? What? in any sectarian Church is there more factitious dignity, more power, and, above all, more money to be had—and that for less work, than in Excellent Church ?-In his Lordship's view, (p. 16), the Church is a lottery. What? in any sectarian Church are there any 25,0001. 14,0001. 10,0001., or so much as 1,0001, a year prizes? Strange then would it be, if, after so many testimonies, there could remain a doubt, that in the maxim, the quantity of religion in the country will be as the quantity of the money put into the pockels of the Clergy and others for the support of it, is contained the persuasion, which, with all his might, it has been, and continues to be, his Lordship's endeavour to impress into every mind that can be induced to receive it.

But, on this head, could any doubt be left by his theory, it may be seen effectually excluded by his praclice.—It is in the case of Curales (it has been seen) that in this speech of his Lordship's this theory is advanced in the first instance: but, if once received as applicable to that case, then come two other and more profitable applications of it, first to the case of Incumbents, and then to the case of the money demanded for more Churches. As to the case of Curates, though nominally at the expense of Incumbents, it is really, (as hath been seen, and will be seen further), at the expense of Patrons alone, that the money for the Curales was to be and has been provided. But it is at the expense of the people at largeSeclaries included, who cannot so much as be expected to receive any part of the direct benefit froin it,- that the money for the supposed underpaid Incumbents has been and continues to be provided; and, moreover, if the people will find patience, it is at their expense that the additional stock of Churches is about to be provided. The


Incumbents—the only Incumbents—at whose expense the money is to be provided for Curales, will be the future contingent Incumbents: and by these the burthen will not be felt. But the people, on whom the burthen is, and will be thrown, are the existing people of the existing time, by whom it will be felt in all its pressure.

Another of the fallacies,-employed by his Lordship’s rhetorick, in the endeavour to conciliate the affection of those on whom it depends, and to secure the patience of the people, under the system of unpunishable depredation to which he is devoting them, -may be seen in the just mentioned emblem of the Loltery, taken from Adam Smith. How can we expect, (says he, p. 16) considering the “ Church only as a profession, that men who have necessarily re“ceived a liberal education, and who ought to be men of liberal “ views, will continue to enter into a profession, in which the “ blanks bear so large a proportion to the prizes?" And again (in p. 28), “In this Lottery, they (the prizes) are indeed far less " than the purchase money paid for the tickets:"—the Lottery accordingly is, in the words of Adam Smith, a disadvantageous one. of this emblem, what is the moral ?- Encrease (such it is of course) Encrease the aggregate value of the prizes. Well, then, when this encrease is made, will you thereby have rendered your loutery a less disadvantageous one to the purchasers' of tickets? Most assuredly not: much more probably will you have rendered it a still more disadvantageous one.--Why? because the greater in number and value the aggregate amount of the prizes, the greater, and—such is the delusive quality of hope-in an indeterminately larger proportion than before, will be the number of the competitors—the number of the purchasers of the tickets. In this way, under the notion of making the lottery less and less disadvantageous, you may keep adding to the number and value of the prizes, till you have emptied the pockets of the people of their last shilling: and when this is done, it will still be more disadvantageous than ever. Such, where applied to professions, is the fallacy couched in this emblem of a lottery. In a real lottery, the number of the


tickels is always limited; in which case, true it is, that if while the number of the tickets remains the same, you make any addition to the aggregate value of the prizes, then so it is, that by the whole amount of the addition, you render the lottery so much the less disadvantageous than it was before. But neither in the lottery of the Church, nor in any other of the pretended lotteries to which, for the like purpose, the emblem of a lottery has been applied, is there any limitation to the number of the tickets.

* To all the several predatory professions, to which the ruling and influential few betake themselves, for the means of preying upon the subjectmany—to the Politician's and the Lawyer's, as well as to the Established Churchman's—this emblem of Adam Smith has been a perfect treasure. Be the amount of the depredation ever so enormous, the whole class of depredators are converted, in the lump, from objects of just jealousy into objects of compassion and sympathy. No abuse, be it ever so excruciating, that it has not been employed, and with but too much success, to reconcile men to :-throughout the whole field of government, sinecures, useless places, needless places, and overpaid places;- in the department of judicature, the continually increasing aggravation of the miseries produced by the technical system of procedure ;--fuctitious delay, vexation, and expense, manufactured by the hands of lawyers, for the sake of the profit made by them out of the expense. Under the shadow of this emblem, we have seen-yes, this very generation has seen-a Chancellor and a Master of the Rolls, “combining and confederating,” to use their own jargon, te and with each other, to levy, and, under the name of fees, levying accordingly, without consent of Parliament, masses of money, more or less of which, through the channel of palronage, was to go into their own pockets.Levy money withont consent of Parliament? On what ground? Because by the like hands, in the same manner, money has been levied once before, Of the ground made in this case, what was the extent, in comparison of that which prevented not the condemnation of Ship-money, and the punishment of those Judges, by whom that imposition had been converted into an instrument of depredation. In the days of Charles the First, Ship-money found a Hampden ; but this is the reign of George the Third, and the race of Hampden is 110 more. In a British House of Commons, not a single voice to lift itself up against the levying of money without the consent of Parliament! Money levied withont consent of Parliament, for private and NOTES TO EXCELLENT CHURCH'S MAXIMS.

To Maxim 4.-Proof, among officialmen, general understanding and general practice.—See Note (“) to Maxim 3.

* To Maxim 5.--Proof, among official men, general understand. ing and practice: and see Doctrine of the Earl of Harrowby, as explained in Note (9) to Maxim 3.

* To Maxim 6.-See Note (*) to Maxim 7.

• To Maxim 7.-In the Non-Established Church, composed of the people called Quakers, the sort of service, which, in other Churches is rendered by hands specially appointed, and generally paid, is rendered by the unpaid hands of such of the Members of this Church as, from time to time, feel disposed to render it. But Quakers are Seclaries: and as according to the doctrine of the Bishop of London, all Sectaries are men of “guilt," so according to the milder doctrine and language of the Earl of Harrowbymilder in form at least—it is not good that Church service should be rendered by, or received from Sectaries,

Proof of the adoption given to this and the last preceding Maxim, --general understanding as expressed in the language of the Earl of Harrowby. It is among the “dangers of our situation," that mention is made by him (pp. 32-16) of the increase in the number of dissenting places of worship, and the still greater increase in the number of dissenting Ministers.--" While the licences for the " creation of dissenting places of worship are increasing, (says he), “ from the average of ninety per annum during the first four

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personal use, levied by that tax, compared with which the worst of other taxes is a relief,* One of the confederates was once a Soldier-Officer: and there came out a pamphlet, proving that officer's pay was such as no gentleman could live upon. Little could he then expect ever to find it in his power, in so sinooth a manner, to reduce such theories to practice.

O rare emblem-emblem of a lottery!-a use for it this, which, with all their sagacity, the inventors of that ingenious iustrument never could have imagined !

• See Bentham's Protest against Law Taxes.

NOTES TO EXCELLENT CHURCH'S MAXIMS. “ teen years of the present reign, to an average of five hundred so and eighteen, during the last fourteen years ; and the licences “ for dissenting preachers in a still larger proportion; while there " are 1,881 parishes, containing a population of nearly five mil" lions of persons, in which the churches and chapels are 2,553, " capable of containing only 1,856,000 persons, and the places of " dissenting worship are 3,438; do not (continues he) let us « shut our eyes to the dangers of our situation." And in the next page, (p.33), " in the most populous parishes, places of worss ship, according to the Church of England, are notoriously defis cient. The people have no option but the entire neglect of all “ divine worship, or the attendance upon a worship which makes " them dissenters from the establishment."

" While the chapels of every sect, (continues his Lordship)

are rising round them day by day, and inviting congregations by “ every species of accommodation, and by the repetition of their " services at different hours, the parish church is open perhaps “ only once on the Sunday; is insufficient to accommodate the “ rich; and in too many places is almost shut against the poor." In any breast, in which either the religion of Jesus, or that morality which depends upon it, were a primary object of regard, under the inability which the Church of England thus confessedly labours under, as to the affording to the people the benefits of divine worship according to the religion of Jesus,--the fact that there are other Churches by which the benefit of divine worship, according to the religion of Jesus, is administered, should it not naturally, whatsoever preference were given to the Church-of-England form in comparison with these dissenters' forms, be, upon the whole, an object not of regret, but of consolation ?-But the religion of the Noble Earl is the religion of the Church-of-England : and the increased extent thus given to the benefit of divine worship, according to the religion of Jesus, is, to his Lordship, matter of pure regret, unassuaged, for any thing that appears, by any the least particle of consolation. All this is consistent: all this is National-Society prin

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