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or other places, the use of factitious reward has been done away.
By natural or naturally attached reward, understand any benefit which, without any thing done for the purpose, either by the hand of government, or by any other hand, finds its way into the hands of him by whom the service in question has been rendered.
On most parts of the field of literature, and on that in question in a greater degree than almost any other,—to a written discourse, by which extra-meritorious service is capable of being in any shape rendered to the public, is naturally attached a mass of reward in a pecuniary shape, dependent upon publication, and consisting in author's profits. A class of cases is not altogether wanting in which, -by reason that the benefit, howsoever real and important, does not in colours sufficiently strong present itself to the feelings of a sufficiently considerable part of the whole number of the persons benefited, or capable of being benefited,—this naturally attached reward fails of being adequate. But assuredly the case here in question belongs not to that class.
In most instances, and in particular in the present,among the properties of this natural reward, one is--that of being more eminently exempt than any factitious reward can be from the danger of being misapplied: another is, that, in respect of proportionality with reference to the value of the service, it presents in general a fairer chance than is presented by any such factitious reward: a third isthat, in the very nature of the case, it comes all of it from willing, no part of it from unwilling hands : thence so it is, that no suffering is produced by it. Of these three desirable properties, the last cannot by any person be denied to belong to it. The two first may indeed :—but by whom 2-By those to whom,--their own" understandings
6 and wills,” together with the few others which are in league with them, being, in their eyes, the only “under
standings and wills” worthy of being regarded otherwise than with contempt,-it is accordingly an object prudently concealed, or madly avowed, to keep in a state of“ pro“ traction" those same faculties in all other men.
In the case of the proposed Homily Sermons, the conception has been seen to be—that, without the benefit of any ulterior reward, natural or factitious, the utility of the service rendered to Church-of-Englandists in general by Church attendance, might, even in their own conceptions, be rendered in a very considerable degree greater than it is at present. Still, however, on this plan, service in this same shape, more and more useful, was not by any means out of view. Were the door of the proposed collection to remain inexorably shut against all future additions, the application of the existing stock of natural reward might, in a degree more or less considerable, be obstructed. But, --if, on this occasion, due attention being paid to the course naturally taken by the natural reward, the application of factitious reward be guided by it,-factitious reward might, in this particular way (it is supposed) be employed -not only without any ill effects, but even with positive
good effect. *
• Five, it is believed, is the number of 8vo. volumes containing the Sermons published by the late Dr. Blair, of Edinburgh. Not till some time after the first, came successively the four others. For each of the four he received, by agreement, from the firm of Millar and Cadell (since Cadell and Davies) 1,0001.: concerning the price paid for the first, nothing can here be said with certainty. After payment of these great prices, so vast was the profit made by the Booksellers, that, from an emotion of spontaneous generosity, they presented him with 1,0001, more. The choice was given liim of plate or money. He chose the money: it was paid him, to the knowledge of the writer of this article, by Sir William Forbes, banker, of Edinburgh.
Thus much as to matter. Remains delivery. Remains thereupon to be shewn, that, in regard to the production of extra-meritorious service in this shape, the tendency of factitious reward would be rather preventive than promotive.
So far as depends upon good delivery, nothing can be more assuredly attached to extra-meritorious service in the character of a preacher, nothing more certainly and ex: actly proportionate, than natural reward. The more impressive the delivery, the more auditors: the more au. ditors, not only the greater the quantity of reward reaped in the shapes of admiration, respect, and reputation, but, if
With the indications thus given, to serve as securities for substantial cor. rectness,-the writer, though anonymous, may venture to propose the anec. dote as a subject for inquiry.
Instruction, in more shapes than one, may be derived from it.
1. To moderate desires, such as suit the subject and the profession, natural reward, in a quantity not incapable of operating with beneficial effect, is attached to meritorious service in this line and in this shape.
2. By Church-of-Scotlandism, with its 933 Parish Priests and no more, service of greater value, in this line and in this shape, has been produced, than by Church-of-Englandism, with its 11,000 Parish Priests and more, be: sides its hierarchy of Archbishops and Bishops, with Sinecurists dignified and undignified, possessors of extravagantly paid benefices,.--all kept on foot under the notion of their being applied in remuneration and production of extra-meritorious service. By no Church-of-England Clergyman, Priest, Bisliop, or Archbishop, even though Tillotson was one Archbishop, has ever been produced a collection of Sermons, of which the number of purchasers, and thence necessarily of readers, has been near so great.
3. Even in the conception of Church-of-Englandists themselves, instruction not unwholesome is not altogether incapable of being drawn, from a fountain, ecclesiastically speaking,
foreign and schismatical as it is. For, unless in no small proportion to Church-of-Englandists, could any such vast number of copies have been sold? Assuredly in houses, zealously Church-of- Eng. landist, have they been found by the writer of these pages. Note that in the whole collection not so much as a single part (it is believed) can be found touched upon, that is in controversy between the two Churches.
the preacher chooses, the more money.
Even under Charch-of-Englandism, though not in Parish Churches, yet in Chapels built or hired on speculation, the truth of this, and even without prejudice to orthodoxy, has been experienced by many a Clergyman, much to his advantage.
In the established Church of Scotland, in the three firstmentioned acquisitions-viz. admiration, respect, and reputation, may indeed be seen all the rewards that a Clergyman can look for from this particular source. But in these shapes, refined as they are, is reward altogether without its value?-altogether destitute of operative and productive energy?
In the Non-Established Churches,-as, in the way of natural reward (factitious having in this case no existence), almost every thing depends upon Prayers and Sermons, matter and delivery together, so accordingly in no small degree upon delivery.
All this while,-though, under Church-of-Englandism, for extra-meritorious service in this shape-matter and delivery together-adequate natural reward, as above, is, to those to whom it appears worth their while to seek it, by no means unattainable,--yet, if the maximum of meritorious service in this shape were the object, the Church to look to would, for the reasons already given, be--among Established Churches, not the English, but the Scotch : to which may be added, with little distinction, all the NonEstablished Churches.
Yes: so far from producing it, the tendency of Sinecures of factitious reward, especially in any such large
• Of delivery, the component parts are intonation and gesture. As to gesture, from a man reading out of a book, scarcely would it any where be endurable. In England, scarcely, without much reserve, from a man preaching withont book. Englisbmen are not Atheniens,
masses, particularly in this line of service,-is-to prevent merit from coming into existence. To the natural reward as above described, in possession or in prospect, substitute now, or add a mass of factitious reward: a richer living, a fat Deanery, or a Bishoprick :-what will be the consequence ?-The factitious reward-it will be at the hands of this or that high-rated individual, in the character of Patron, that it will be looked for: instead of being wor., shipped by his congregation, the business of the Preacher will be to worship this giver of good gifts: to that object will all his attention and exertions be directed. This, while the reward is as yet but in expectancy. But, suppose it in possession, and no ulterior object of ambition in prospect, then not only in the line of public service, but in every other live, even in the line of Patron-worship, will exertions
The hope of the reward is what the exertions had for their cause : the cause ceasing, so does the effect.
Thus stands the matter so far as depends upon the performance of the duties of perfect obligation. Turn now to those of imperfect obligation--the inexigible services so often distinguished and explained. On condition of his residency then, and in proportion to the relative value which his charity, bis zeal, and his intelligence, give to them, respect, and, within a moderately extensive circle, reputation, will attach upon them, and constitute in the breast of the Parish Priest the temporal and human part of his reward; as to admiration-of that sort which is the fruit of discourse, and in a more particular manner of oratory, it belongs not to this part of his field of duty: but in lieu of it, he finds in affection a more appropriate, and to a pious taste a less suspected, and upon the whole a sweeter fruit.
Apply now the fatter Living, the fat Deanery, the fat Bishoprick : during expectancy, behold now the same de