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well as exigible, with most important extra-professional duties, all well performed :-not to speak of human learn

given to the brothers of the Marquis of Waterford, Earls Howth, Roden, and Kilkenny. It will be observed, that the Marquis of Waterford has three mitres now in his family, the Archbishoprick of Tuam, and the Bishopricks of Kilmore and Killaloe. How much “ Virtue and Talentdo these Beresfords possess. In the same way have the enormous Irish livings been dis

posed of.

“ The vacancies (before the last) that they have filled up on the Bench, in England, have been eight ; the persons who have been selected have been the Tutors of the Dukes of Buccleugh, Portland, Gloucester, Rutland, the brother of the Prince-Regent's Tutor, the Secretary of the Duke of Portland, and a brother of Lord Ellenborough. The Laws, in England, rival the BERESFORDS, in Ireland; for they have had three mitres. The present Bishop of Chester's father had the See of Carlisle, and his brother, the See of Elphin.

“ The Deaneries, Prebends, &c. have been chiefly got by the Duke of Beaufort, Lords Harrouby, Brownlow, 8c. for their own connexions. With the exception of the Deanery of Canterbury, bestowed upon a popular preacher, we ask whether ove of those good things has fallen upon a person recommended alone" by Virtue and Talent?-N.B.Mask not yet dropped off.

“ It is a moot point, whether the Bishoprick of Waterford, just vacant by the death of Dr. Stock, is in the patronage of the Duke of Richmond or Lord Whitworth: the latter, though sworn in Lord Lieutenant of Ireland before the English Council (it is contended) not being virtually invested with the Sovereign Authority of the Sister Kingdom, until he is also sworn into that high office before the Privy Council of Ireland also. It is said, however, that the brother of the Attorney-General of Ireland is to be the new Bishop of Waterford.

“ The Bishopric of Bristol is about to receive a considerable addition to its episcopal revenue, through the means of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the valnable rectory of Almondsford, on the Severn, in the patronage of the Bishop of Bristol, having just become vacant, but the presentation to it devolving to his Grace; as an option, he has liberally waved his right, on condition that it be annexed to the See in perpetuity, which will raise it from six hundred to two thousand two hundred pounds per annum."

Engaging every successive Bishop of Bristol to obtain this same Living, on pretence of doing all the duty, with a fixed determination not to do any part of it—such is the virtue, which, ander the name of liberality, is, by the candour of this Opposition writer, whoever he is, made matter of

ing. In the Non-Established Churches, though in all of them without the extra-professional services, and in perhaps the most populous of them without human learning, you have the professional services, inexigible as well as exigible, rendered under circumstances of which a still more active zeal than in any Established Church, even than in that of Scotland, is a natural, not to say a necessary consequence.

Good my Lord, I have now, I hope, afforded your Lordship satisfaction as to the above six or seven points : viz. 1. That the probable production of public service, in some specific shape, and not merit at large, is the only proper ground, on which, at the expense of the public, the matter of reward, in any shape, can be bestowed :-2. That as in every line of public service, so more particularly in this, a Sinecure is, in every imaginable point of view, ill-suited to any such purpose as that of the production of merito. rious public service :--3. That by none of the duties per formed by a Clergyman of the Church of England can any such service be rendered, the production of which can reasonably be expected to be promoted by factitious extra reward in any shape, and particularly in the shape of Sinecure or Extra-paid office :-4. That,-for production of every the most valuable service, which in that situation and character can be rendered,—the reward which, by the very nature of the case, without any thing done by govern. ment, attaches upon the service, is proper, and, with or without a proposed slight exception, sufficient : 5. that of large masses of

land, for the benefit of his Grace of Canterbury. But, quære as to the matter of fact?-As to the obtainment of Livings by Bishops, see further under the head of Discipline.

Morning Chronicle, 19th Nov. 1813, Ministers have rewarded their friend, Dr. Parsons, of Oxford, with the Bishoprick of Peterborough ;-it is not forgotten with how much zeal he discharged the duties of the Presiding Officer, during Lord Eldon's unsuccessful contest for the Chancellorship of the University.”

factitious reward,—whether in the shape of Sinecure or any other,-under Church-of-Englandism, the natural effect, so far from causing to come, is to prevent meritorious public service from coming, into existence : 6. that (saving your Lordship’s presence) instead of the giving existence to meritorious public service, the views of those by whom the continuance of Sinecures, and overpaid and useless and needless places is contended for, are of a nature altogether opposite : advancement of personal and private interest at the expense of public, the end; corruption, the means: that (to come to particulars) Deaneries, Canonries, Prebends, with their respective et cæteras, and moreover the Incumbent's part of the profit of Livings served by Curates, are plainly useless, and worse than useless :—that the difference between Curate's pay and the least

pay for which any man or boy, that can read, would read what the Curate reads, is also useless; and that Bishopricks and Archbishopricks, unless any adequate use can be found for them under the head of Discipline (of which presently) are in a still worse case.

To your Lordship’s universally acknowledged meritto that demand for reward of the highest price, which is so illustriously visible in your Lordship’s case—I bow with prostrate reverence :-but, on a case so singular, no true general proposition can be built.

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§ 6—III. Discipline.

Church discipline may be considered, in its exercise over the Clergy, or in its exercise over the people at large, i. e. over Clergy and Laity together; say for shortness, oyer the Laity.

In an Established Church, considered in its exercise

over the Clergy, the proper use of it may be defined to be, so to order matters, that, in return for the pay, if any, service shall be rendered, such as shall in quality be conformable to the system established in regard to doctrine, and moreover adequate in respect of quantity.

1. First, as to the duties of perfect obligation.

Under a Liturgy, quality being secured by the fixt form, if the Parish-boy be employed to read the Minister's part, nothing can be easier than to secure the performance of the service in due quantity. For the stated and periodically recurring parts pay him each time, as, for the occasional parts of the service, the Minister is paid at present; viz. by the fees called surplice fees. The pay. masters may be the Churchwardens.

Under Church-of-Englandism, as to every part of the service but the Sermons, doctrine is secured by the Liturgy. By the here-proposed authoritative Collection of Homily Sermons, it would be no less effectually secured in regard to Sermons.

In regard to both these parts of the service, for securing conformity on the part of the proposed Parish-boy, no great expense, either in money, attention, or talent, would be necessary.

In case of involuntary deviations, suspension, or in case of delinquency, repeated in such sort as to serve as conclusive evidence of inaptitude, deprivation might, by the governing body of the Parish, be inflicted without much difficulty. In case of purposed delinquency, through boyish malice, a proportionate application of the rod might be added. But, under the absence of all ordinary motives for purposed delinquency, naturally speaking, whatsoever is said about the rod, may remain a dead letter for any number of ages.

In a Non-Established Church, no apparatus is employed


-no official establishment no body of coercive laws-for the maintenance of discipline. With perfect simplicity, and with no less perfect efficiency, the discipline is exer. cised by the lay-members of the Church themselves; by the lay-members, in their character of voluntary contributors to the expense.

If the service had ever failed to be performed, no member would have paid any thing: if for a time the service were to cease to be performed, for that same time at least, every member who thought fit so to do would cease to pay. But, this being the case, and universally seen to be the case, in no instance in any such Church does the service cease to be performed. Not for a year-not so much as for a day—is any such office a Sinecure. If, in respect of quality, it is, in the judgment of any such member, to a certain degree ill-performed, he stops his attendance and with it his contribution. This stoppage has, according to the amount of it, the effect of a legal penalty: but with this difference, viz. that by the endeavour, successful or unsuccessful, to cause a legal penalty to be levied, the burthen of litigation would to a certainty be laid upon the shoulders of both parties, while the success of the endeavour, be the offence ever so flagrant, would still be uncertain : whereas, in a Non-Established Church, no sooner, on the part of the Minister, does any thing, which, in the conception of a contributing member, is regarded as delinquency, manifest itself, than he withdraws his contribution, and, with the exception of the delay, vexation, and expense, attendant on litigation, this substraction has the effect of a fine : and of this fine, the severity is exactly as the number of the contributing members, by whom, in any such degree, as to call for punishment in this shape, what is done is regarded as constituting an offence.

Under the established Church of Scotland, a body of

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