The First Millennium AD in Europe and the Mediterranean: An Archaeological Essay
Modern archaeology, with its huge methodological repertoire, its interdisciplinary orientation and its rapidly expanding basis in excavations, is beginning to rewrite history, and to reshape our views of the development of Europe prior to the present millennium. Archaeological evidence draws attention to processes on which the written record is silent, or which were not fully appreciated by contemporaries in the literate centres. This book deals with the rise of medieval western Europe as the Roman Empire crumbled, and the integration of hitherto barbarian societies into the new mainstream of European society. Archaeological material is the main focus, but information derived from written sources, especially those illuminating the economic and the associated social circumstances, is also taken into account.
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Africa agrarian settlement agrarian sites agricultural amphorae archaeological base-metal coins Britain buildings Bulgaria Byzantine Carolingian cattle centres Changing frequencies Changing numbers churches Constantinople craft production Danish Danube dating decline Denmark distribution dominated Dorestad Early Empire Early Roman period east Eastern Roman economic eighth century example expansion factories fifth century fortress fourth century Frankish frequencies of Roman frontier Gaul Germanic graves High Middle Ages imperial important increase inscriptions instance Islamic Italy large number Late Antiquity Late Roman period later Levant Limes Arabicus Marcomannic wars material Merovingian military millennium mosaics Nordic area north-western northern number of settlements particularly phase political pottery provinces Randsborg 1985 region relatively Rhine Roman Empire Roman villas Rome Scandinavia second century seventh century sixth slaves social society southern tenth century third century Tornow towns trade Trier Viking Vorbasse Western Empire Western Europe Western Roman Empire woollen cloth written sources