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Definition of vowels and consonants so on to so se as so §

Analogical table of the vowels - • s = * * * * * * o • - 16

Diphthongs and triphthongs enumerated - - - - - - - - - - 17

Consonants distinguished into classes - - - - - - - - - - - 18

Analogical table of the consonants - - - - - " - - - - - - 29

Organick formation of the letters - - Q- o to to &O - - - 31

Of the quantity and quality of the vowels , , - ... - - - - - * - 62

Of the influence of accent on the sounds of the letters - - - - - - - - 69

The letter .4 and its different sounds - - - - - • * : * ~ * s 72

The letter E and its different sounds to so os • ‘o o o do to - - 93

The letter I and its different sounds - we se o to so to do on - / 105

The letter U and its different sounds • - * *, * * * * * - - - 161

The letter U and its different sounds - o to o so wo • , = o o aw & 171

The vowel Y and its different sounds • * - - - - - - - - - 18%

The vowel W and its different sounds - o so top - - go o o - - 189

Of the diphthongs called semi-consonants -> -> so o o o - - - - 196

Of the diphthongs AE, AI, AO, and all the rest in their alphabetical order - - go to 199

Of the sounds of the consonants - - - - - - - - - - - 347

B, when mute * ... • - e- to o o o -> o • - o - ibid.

C, its different sounds - - - • & o o o o o o • * - 348

D, its different sounds - so * to go so --> wo to to • * - - 358

Improperly changed into T. Dr Lowth's opinion of this change in certain verbs, consider-

ed and corrected wo g- * & - o o * go so - 369

F, its different sounds - to to so so o o - o • • - 377

G, its different sounds - • o o o - - to- go so - - 379

*} always mute before JW in the same syllable at the end of a word, exemplified in the words

impugn, oppugn, propugn, expugn, impregn, &c. with the authorities of the most respectable -

orthūepists • * $o • go o os o os * to - - 385

H, when sounded, and when mute - so - - to- - - to - -, 394

J, its uniform sound o o - - - - - - - - - - - - 398

K, when sounded, and when mute - o o - - * to * • = o - 399

D, when sounded, and when mute - - - o - o to -- as o 401

.M., when sounded, and when mute - - - - - - - - - - - 407

JY, when it has its naso-guttural sound - - - - - - - - - - , - - - 408

When it has its ringing sound in the participial termination ing - - - - - - - 410

P, when sounded, and when mute • * * * * * * - - - 41%

i’H, its uniform sound - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41%

Q, its di. erent sonnds, when combined with w - - to o • - - 414

R, when its sound is transposed - - - - - - ~ - - - - 416

When it is to be pronounced rough, and when smooth o - o o * , go o 419

S, its different sounds * * * * * * * as as o os - - ibid

When it is to be pronounced like z - to o -> o - s ow • • o 432

When it is to be pronounced like sh and zh - go - o to o - - 430

Mr. Sheridan's errour in this point detected - - - - o - - 4.54

T, its disferent sounds * - o o - so * me o 'o' wo - 459

How t slides into sh in the numerous termination tion - - - to o - - ibid.

Why it slides into this sound before u, preceded by the accent - - -> so to • 461

Mr. Sheridan's errour in this poisot detected - - - - - - o, o so to 52

TH, its different sounds - - - o o so o so o o o • is 465

When the h is silent in this combination - - - - - - - - - - 471

T, when silent - - • - o o to or so go go to 479.

W, its uniform sound - •o o - to o o o & • -> - 473

W, when silent, and when sounded, - ... - . . - - - - - - - 474, 475

X, is exactly similar to ks, and liable to the same alterations of sound - - - 479

Mr. Sheridan's errour in this point detected - - - - - - - - - 480

Y, as a consonant, and its different sounds - - - - - - - - - - - - • 482

Z, improperly resolved by Dr. Johnson into s hard 2” -

Its true name Izzard - * o o o o so ... • - - - 483

Its different sounds - - - - - - - - - - - - - 484

The only true definition of accent o o so e- so to to do - • o

The different position of the English accen so o - •o wo o to- -> wo->

Accent on dissyllables - - - go * * * * to • , = * > to or

Dissyllable mouns and verbs differently accented - - - so op to a , &e

Accent on trisyllables - o o e- o so io o * o se o to.

Partial dependence of the English accent on that of the Greek and Latin - - -

Accent on polysyllables ... :- 4- -- * e o * ** so * * goe s so

tonclitical accent exemplified in the termination logy, graphy, &c. - * = - 513,

488

489

491

492

501

533

504

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The tendency of compounds to contract the sound of the simple - . • * No. 518 Secondary accent : ... - - - - - - - - - 5.2 The shortening power of this accent - - - - - - - - - - - bo

On Quantity.

The shortening ower of the secondary accent exemplified in the . and incoissistency of Mr. Sheridan and Dr. Kenrick in their division of words into syllables - - - 530

On Syllabication. £

Syllabication different according to the different ends to be attained by it - - 538 Syllabication exhibiting the sound of a word, depending, in some measure, on the nature of rhe letters prior to actual pronunciation + = {-o or * g go to o os jo The almost total independence of the English quantity on that of the Greek and Latin, exemplified by an enumeration of most of the dissyllables in our language derived from the Latin and Greek - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 544 The only possible case in which we can argue from the Latin quantity to the English - - ibid. Dissyllables from the Saxon and French languages enumerated - - - - - - ibid. Causes of the prevalence of shortening the first syllable of dissyllables from these languages - ibid. Of the quantity of unaccented syllables ending with a vowel to go. - - - - 547 Uncertainty and inconsistency of Dr. Kemrick in his notation of the quantity of these vowels ibid Uncertainty and inconsistency of Mr. Sheridan and Dr. Kenrick in marking the quantity of these vowels * go to o o go o to * so * o o go Exception to the general rule of pronouncing these syllables when e is followed by r - Uncertainty of our best orth&epists in their syllabication of such words, exemplified by a list from Sneridan, Kenrick, Scott, and Perry - - - - - - go os to * * Peculiar delicacy of the sound of these syllables - - * * * o * 555 Tendency of obefore r to go into the same obscurity as e, exemplified in the diversity and inconsistency of our best orthóepists in marking these syllables *...* • - 537 Table of the simple and diphthongal vowels, referred to as a key to the figures over the letters in trie Dictionary * > *. --- &m. 55

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ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION. ( . ls THE First Principles or Elements of Pronunciation are Letters'

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2. To these may be added certain combinations of letters sometimes used in printing; as ct, st fl, sb, sh, sk, f, ss, si, ssi, fi, ffi, fil, and &c. or and per se and, or rather et perse and ; ct, st, f, fis sl, sb, sh, sk, f, ss, si, ssi,jo fi, Š".

3*Our letters, says Dr. Johnson, are commonly reckoned twenty-four, because anciently i and f, as well as u and v, were expressed by the same character; but as these letters, which had always . powers, have now different forms, our alphabet may be properly said to consist of twentysix letters.

4. In considering the sounds of these first principles of language, we find that some are so simple and unmixed, that there is nothing required but the opening of the mouth to make them understood, and to form different sounds. "Wojc. they have the names of vowels, or voices or vocal sounds. On the contrary, we find that there are others, whose pronunciation depends on the particular application and use of every part of the mouth, as the teeth, the lips, the tongue, the pa late, &c., which yet cannot make any one perfect sound but by their union with those woeal sounds; and these are called consonants, or letters sounding with other letters.

Definition of Vowels and Consonants.

5. Vowels are generally reckoned to be five in number; namely, a, e, i, o, u ; y and w are called vowels when they end a syllable or word, and consonants when they begin one. 6. The definition of a vowel, as little liable to exception as any, seems to be the following: A vowel is a simple sound formed by a continued effusion of the breath, and a certain conformation of the mouth, without any alteration in the position, or any motion of the organs of speech, from the moment the vocal sound commences till it ends. 7. A consonant may be defined to be an interruption of the effusion of vocal sound, arising from the application of the organs of speech to each ot.cr. __* 8. Agreeably to this definition, vowels may be divided into two kinds, the simple and compound The simple a, e, o, are those which are formed by one conformation of the organs only ; that is, the organs remain exactly in the same position at the end as at the beginning of the letter; whereas in the compound vowels i and u, the Qrgans alter their position before the letter is completely sounded ; may, these letters, when commèncing a syllable, do not only require a different position of the organs in order to form them perfectly, but demand such an application of the tongue to the roof of the mouth, as is inconsistent with the nature of a pure vowel ; for the first of these letters, i, when sounded alone, or ending a syllable with the accent upon it, is a real diphthong, composed of the sounds of a in futher, and of e in the, exactly correspondent to the sound of the tioun eye; and when this letter commences a svllable, as in nim-ion, pai-won, &c. the sound of e with which it terminates is squeezed into a consonant sound, like the double & heard in queen, different £10m the simple sound of that letter in queen, and this squeezed sound in the commencing i makes

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$5 CLASSIFICATION"OF"THoo

it exactly similar to y in the same situation so to all grammarians, is acknowledged to be a consonant.” The latter of these compound vowels, u, when initial, and not shortened by a com sonant, commences with this squeezed sound of e equivalent to the y, and ends with a sound given to og in woo and co’, which makes its name in the alphabet exactly similar to the pronoun you. If, therefore, the cAmmon definition of a vowel be just, these two letters are so far from being simple vowels, that they may more properly be called semi-consonant diphthongs. 9. That y and w are consonants when they begin a word, and vowels when they end one, is generally acknowledged by the best grammarians; and yet Dr. Lowth has told us, that w is equivalent to oo ; but if this were the case, it would always aimit of the particle an before it : for though we have no word in the language which commences with these letters, we plainly perceive, that if we had such a word, it would readily admit of an before it, and consequently that these let ters are not equivalent to w. Thus we find, that the common opinion, with respect to the touble capacity of these letters, is perfectly just. 0. Besides the vowels already mentiomed, there is another simple vowel sound found under the oo in the words woo and coo; these letters have, in these two words, every property of a pure vowel, but when found in food, mood, &c. and in the word too, pronounced like the adjective two : here the oo has a squeezed sound, occasioned by contracting the mouth, so as to make the lips nearly touch each other; and this makes it, like the i and u, not so much a double vowel, as a sound between a vowel and a consonant. *

Classification of Vowels and Consonants.

11. Vowels and consonants being thus defined, it will be necessary, in the next place, to arrange them into such classes as their similitudes and specific differences seem to require.

12. Letters, therefore, are naturally divisible into vowels and consonants.

13. The vowels are, a, e, i, o, u, and y and w when ending a syllable.

§ o: consonants are, b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, ac, z, and y and w when beginning & SWIoal) le.

#. The vowels may be subdivided into such as are simple and pure, and into such as are compound and impure. The simple or pure vowels are such as require only one conformation of the organs to form them, and no motion in the organs while forming. . . ',

16. The compound or impure vowels are such as require more than one conformation of the organs to form them, and a motion in the organs while forming. These observations premised, we may call the following scheme

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17. Two vowels forming but one syllable are generally called a diphthonig, and three a triphthong these are the following

ae Caesar ei ceiling ea coat tli languid
ai aim eo people oe Oeconomy wy buy
ao gaol eu feud of voice aye (for ever)
au taugh ew jewel 60 mloon eau beauty
aw law ey they - ou found eou plenteous
ay say ia poniard (MD 10W iew adieu
eu clean de friend oy boy £ew view
ee reed io passion we mansuetude Oeo islandellore

*How so aceurate a grammarian as Dr. Lowth could pronounce so definitely on the nature of y, and insist on its being always a vowel, can only be accounted for by considering the small attention which is generally paid to this part of grainmar. His words are these: * The same sound which we express by the initial y, our Saxon ancestors in many instances expressed by the vowel • ; as eower, your ; and by the vowel i ; as iv, yew ; iong, young. In the word yew the initial y has precisely the same sound with i in the words view, lieu, adieu ; the i is acknowledged to be a vowel in these latter; how then can the y which nas the very same sound, possibly be a consonant in the former ? Its initial sound is generally like that § t is shire, or ee nearly ; it is formed by the opening of the mouth without any motion or contact of the parts: in a word, it has every property of a vowel, and not one of a consonant.” Introd. to Eng. Gram. page 3. Thus far the learned bishop; who has too fixed a fame to suffer any diminution by a mistake in so trifling a pars of literature as this. but it may be asked, if y has every property of a vowel and not one of a consonant, why, when it begins a word, does it not admit of the euphomic article an before it? w i An ignorance of the real composition of u, and a want of knowing that it partook of the nature of a consonant, has occasioned a great diversity and uncertainty in prefixing the indefinite article an before it. Gurancestors, juiging of its nature from its name, never suspected that it was not a pure vowel, and constantly prenxed the article on before nouns beginning with this letter: as an union, an useful book. They were confirmed in this opinion by finding the an always adapted to the short w, as an umpire, an umbrella, without ever dreaming that the short w is a pure vorvel, and essentially different from the long one. But the moderns, not resting in the name of a letter, and consuiting their ears rather than their eyes, have frequently placed the a instead of ar. before the * w, and we have teen a union, a university, a useful book, from some of the most respectable pens of the present age. Nor can we doub: a moment of the propriety of this orthography, when we reflect that these words actually begin to the ear with y, and might be spelled younion, youniversity, youseful, and can therefore no more admä of an before toem than year and youth. See Remarks on the word An in this Oíctionary. . . *

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,” Consonants enumool distinguished into Classes 18. The consonants are divisible into mutes, semi-vowels, and liquids. 19. The mutes are such as emit no sound without a vowel, as b, p, t, d, k, and e and g hard. 20. The semi-vowels are such as emit a sound without the concurrence of a vowel, as s, v, s, *, *, soft or j. g 21, # liquids are such as flow into, or unite easily with the mutes, as l, m, n, r. - # 22. But, besides these, there is another classification of the consonants, of great importance to a just les of the mature of the letters, and that is, into such as are sharp or flat, and simple or aspitrated. ‘. 23. The sharp consonants are, p, f, t, s, k, c hard. 24. The flat consonants are, b, p, d, z, g hard. 25 The simple consonants are those which have always the sound of one letter unmixed with others, as, b, p, s, v, k, g hard, and & Soft, or j. 25. The mixed or aspirated consonants are those which have sometimes a hiss or aspiration joined with them, which mingles with the letter, and alters its sound, as tin motion, d in soldier, sin mission, and z in azure. - 27. There is another distinction of consonants arising either from the seat of their formation, or from those organs which are chiefly employed in forming them. The best distinction of this kind seems to be that which divides them into fabials, dentals, gutturals, and masals. 28. The labials arez.b.; p, f, w; The dentals are, t, d, s, z, and soft g or j. The gutturals are k, q, chard, and g hard. The nasals are, m, n, and ng. 29, These several properties of the consonants may be exhibited at one view in the following table which may be called - 4.

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30 Vowels and consonants being thus defined and arranged, we are the better enabled to enter upon an inquiry into their different powers, as they are differently combined with each other. But previous to this, that nothing may be wanting to form a just idea of the first principles of pronunciation, it may not be improper to show the organic formation of each letter.

Organic Formation of the Letters. .

31. Though I think every mechanical account of the organic formation of the letters rather curious than useful, yet, that nothing which can be presented to the eye may be wanting to inform the ear, I shall in this follow those who have beer at the pains to trace every letter to its seat, and mako us, as it were, touch the sounds we articulate.

Organic Formation of the Vowels.

32. It will be necessary to observe, that there are three long sounds of the letter a, which are formed by a greater or less expansion of the internal parts of the mouth. 33. The German a, heard in ball, wall, &c. is formed by a strong and grave expression of the breath through the mouth, which is open nearly in a circular form, while the tongue, contracting itself to the root, as to make way for the sound, almost rests upon the under jaw. 34. The Italian a, heard in father, closes the mouth a little more than the German as and by rais: ing the lower jaw, widening the tongue, and advancing it a little nearer to the lips, renders its sound less hollow and deep. 35. The slender a, or that heard in lane, is formed in the mouth still . than the last; and in pronouncing it, the lips, as if to give it a slender sound, dilate their aperture horizontally; while the tongue, to assist this narrow emission of breath, widens itself to the cheeks, raises itself nearer the palate, and by these means a less hollow sound than either of the former is produced. 36. The e in e-qual is formed by dilating the tongue a little more, and advancing it nearer to the palate and the lips, which produces, the slenderest vowel in the language ; for the tongue is, in the formation of this letter, as close to the palate as possible, without touching it; as the moment the tongue touches the palate, the squeezed sound of ee in thee and meet is formed, which, by its description, must partake of the sound of the consonant y. d y 37. The i in i-dol is formed by uniting the sound of the Italian a in father and the e in e-qual, and pronouncing them as closely together as possible. See Directions to foreigners at the beginning of this book, page 11. * 33. The o in o-pen is formed by nearly the same position of the organs as the a in wa-ter; but the tongue is advanced a little more into the middle of the mouth, the lips are protruded, and form a round aperture like the form of the letter, and the voice is not so deep in the mouth as when a is formed, but advances to the middle or hollow of the mouth. -* & 39. The u in u-nit is formed by uniting the squeezed sound ee to a simple vowel sound, heard is *oo and cog o the og in these words isogled by protruding the lips a little more than in o. forming a

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