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using a certain or supposed charme, against an without the hazard of a perpetual wry mouth : uncertaine or suspected witchcraft. 3. In a very nobleman's request may be denied more searching anxiously for the witches signe or safely than her petitions for butter, milke, and token left behinde her in the house under the small beere; and a great ladies or queenes threshold, in the bed-straw; and to be sure to name may be lesse doubtfully derided. Her light upon it, burning every odd ragge, or prayers and Amen be a charm and a curse: bone, or feather, that is to be found. 4. In her contemplations and soules delight bee swearing, rayling, threatning, cursing, and other men's mischiefe: her portion and sutors banning the witch; as if this were a right way be her soule and a succubus: her highest to bewitch the witch from bewitching. 5. In adorations be yew-trees, dampish churchbanging and basting, scratching and claw- yards, and a fayre moonlight: her best preing, to draw blood of the witch. 6. In daring servatives be odue numbers and mightie Tetraand defying the witch out of a carnal security
gramaton." and presumptuous temerity.”
It was an article in the creed of popular The following passage is taken from “Ste- superstition concerning witches to believe phens's Characters," p. 375 : “ The torments “ that, when they are in hold, they must therefore of hot iron and mercilesse scratching leave their Devil.” See Holiday's old play nayles belong thought uppon and much .of “TEXNOTAMIA; or the Marriage of the threatned (by the females) before attempted. Arts,” 4to. 1630, signat. N 4. Meanetime she tolerates defiance thorough the Empescher qu'un sorcier,” says M. Thiers, wrathfull spittle of matrons, in stead of fuell, “ ne sorte du logis où il est, en mettant des or maintenance to her damnable intentions." balais à la porte de ce logis.” Traité des He goes on—“Children cannot smile upon her Superstitions, p. 331.
THE SORCERER, OR MAGICIAN
A SORCERER or Magician, says Grose, differs “ The art of Sorcery consists in divers forms of froin a witch in this: a witch derives all her circles (2) and conjurations rightly joined topower from a compact with the Devil: a Sor- gether, few or more in number according to cerer commands him, and the infernal spirits, the number of persons conjurors (always passby his skill in powerful charms and invoca- ing the singular number), according to the tions : (-) and also soothes and entices them qualitie of the circle and form of the apparition. by fumigations. For the devils are observed T'wo principal things cannot well in that erto have delicate nostrils, abominating and fly- rand be wanted : holy water (whereby the ing some kinds of stinks : witness the flight of Devil mocks the Papists), and some present of the evil spirit into the remote parts of Egypt, a living thing unto him. There are likewise driven by the smell of a fisb's liver burned by certain daies and houres that they observe in Tobit. They are also found to be peculiarly this purpose. These things being all ready and fond of certain perfumes : insomuch that Lilly prepared, circles are made, triangular, quadinforms us that, one Evans having raised a rangular, round, double, or single, according spirit at the request of Lord Bothwell and Sir to the form of the apparition they crave. But Kenelm Digby, and forgotten a suffumigation, to speake of the diverse formes of the circles, the spirit, vexed at the disappointment, snatched of the innumerable characters and crosses that him out from his circle, and carried him from are within and without, and out-through the his house in the Minories into a field near same ; of the diverse formes of apparitions that Battersea Causeway.
the craftie spirit illudes them with, and of all King James, in his “Dæmonologia," says: such particulars in that action, I remit it over
to many that have busied their heads in de rations, with the Litany, or invocation pecu. scribing of the same, as being but curious and liar to the spirits or angels he wishes to call, altogether unprofitable. And this farre only (for every one has his particular form,) the I touch, that, when the conjured spirit ap seer looks into a chrystal or berryl, wherein peares, which will not be while after many he will see the answer, represented either by circumstances, long prayers and much mut types or figures : and sometimes, though very tering and murmurings of the conjurers, like rarely, will hear the angels or spirits speak a papist prieste despatching a huntting masse articulately. Their pronunciation is, as Lilly
says, like the Irish, much in the throat. (3) missed one jote of all their rites; or if any of Lilly describes one of these berryls or their feete once slyd over the circle, through chrystals. It was, he says, as large as an terror of this fearful apparition, he paies him. orange, set in silver, with a cross at the top, self at that time, in his owne hand, of that due and round about engraved the names of the debt which they ought him and otherwise angels Raphael, Gabriel, and Uriel. A dewould have delaied longer to have paied him; lineation of another is engraved in the fronI meane, he carries them with him, body and tispiece to Aubrey's “ Miscellanies.' This soul.
mode of enquiry was practised by Dr. Dee, “ If this be not now a just cause to make the celebrated mathematician. them weary of these formes of conjuration, I lator was named Kelly. From him, and leave it to you to judge upon; considering the others practising this art, we have a long longsomeness of the labour, the precise keep muster-roll of the infernal host, their different ing of daies and houres (as I have said), the natures, tempers, and appearances. Dr. Regiterribleness of the apparition, and the present nald Scot has given us a list of some of the peril that they stand in in missing the least chiefs of these devils or spirits.”. circumstance or freite that they ought to “ These Sorcerers, or Magicians, do not observe : and, on the other part, the Devill is always employ their art to do mischief; but, glad to moove them to a plaine and square on the contrary, frequently exert it to cure dealing with them, as I said before."
diseases inflicted by witches, to discover “ This," Grose observes, “is a pretty ac thieves, recover stolen goods, (*) to foretell curate description of this mode of conjura future events and the state of absent friends. tion, styled the circular method; but, with On this account they are frequently called all due respect to his Majesty's learning, White Witches."(a) square and triangular circles are figures not Ady, in his “ Candle in the Dark,” p. 29, to be found in Euclid or any of the common speaking of common jugglers, that go up and writers on geometry. But perhaps King down to play their tricks in fayrs and marJames learnt his mathematics from the same kets, says: “ I will speak of one man more system as Doctor Sacheverell, who, in one of excelling in that craft than others, that went his speeches or sermons, made use of the fol about in King James his time, and long lowing simile: “They concur like parallel since, who called himself the King's Majesties lines, meeting in one common centre.
most excellent Hocus Pocus, and so was he “ Another mode of consulting spirits was called, because that at the playing of every by the berryl, by means of a speculator or trick he used to say, “Hocus pocus, (5) tontus, seer, who, to have a complete sight, ought to talontus, vade celeriter jubeo,' a darke combe a pure virgin, a youthi who had not known posure of words to blinde the eyes of bewoman, or at least a person of irreproachable holders." life and purity of manners. The method of such consultation is this: the conjurer, hav.
(a) See the present volume, p. 5. ing repeated the necessary charms and adju
NOTES TO THE SORCERER, OR MAGICIAN.
(1) The difference between a conjurer, a jurors, do oftentimes teare their masters and witch, and an Enchanter, according to Min- raisers in pieces, for want of other imployshew, in his “Dictionary,” is as follows: “ The ment." conjurer seemeth by praiers and invocations of I find Lubrican to have been the name of God's powerful names, to compel the Divell to one of these spirits thus raised; in the second say or doe what he commandeth him. The part of Dekker's “ Honest Whore,” 4to. Lond. witch dealeth rather by a friendly and volun- 1630, signat. E 3, is the following: tarie conference or agreement between him
_" As for your Irish Lubrican, that spirit and her and the divell or familiar, to have his or her turn served, in lieu or stead of blood
Whom by preposterous charmes thy lust hath
raised or other gift offered unto him, especially of his
In a wrong circle, him Ile damne more blacke or her soule. And both these differ from In
Then any tyrant's soule.” chanters or Sorcerers, because the former two have personal conference with the Divell, and A jealous husband is threatening an Irish the other meddles but with medicines and ce- servant, with whom he suspects his wife to remonial formes of words called churmes, with- have played false. out apparition.” See Reed's edit. of Shaksp. In - The Witch of Edmonton," 4to. Lond. 1803, vol. viii. p. 407.
1658, p. 32, Winnifride, as a boy, says :(2) Reginald Scot, in his “ Discourse on
" I'll be no pander to him; and if I finde Devils and Spirits," p. 72, tells us that, with Any loose Lubrick 'scapes in him, I'll watch regard to conjurers, “ The circles by which they
him, defend themselves are commonly nine foot in
And, at my return, protest I'll shew you all." breadth, but the eastern Magicians must give
The old vulgar ceremonies used in raising Melton, in his “ Astrologaster," p. 16, speak setting an old hat in the centre of it, repeat
the Devil, such as making a circle with chalk, ing of conjurers, says, They always observe the time of the moone before they set their
ing the Lord's Prayer backward, &c. &c., are figure, and when they have set their figure and
now altogether obsolete, and seem to be forspread their circle, first exorcise the wine and
gotten even amongst our boys. water which they sprinkle on their circle,
Mason, in his “ Anatomie of Sorcerie,” 4to. then mumble in an unknown language. Doe
Lond. 1612, p. 86, ridicules “Inchanters and they not crosse and exorcise their surplus,
charmers—they, which by using of certaine their silver wand, gowne, cap,.
conceited words, characters, circles, amulets,
and such-like vaine and wicked trumpery (by strument they use about their blacke and damnable art? Nay, they crosse the place
God's permission) doe worke great marvailes: whereon they stand, because they thinke the
as namely in causing of sicknesse, as also in Devill hath no power to come to it when they
curing diseases in men's bodies. And likehave blest it."
wise binding some, that they cannot use their The following passage occurs ir “ A strange
naturall powers and faculties; as we see in Horse-Race,” by Thomas Dekker, 4to. Lond.
night-spells. Insomuch as some them doe 1613, signat. D 3: “He darting an eye upon
take in hand to bind the Divell himselfe by them, able to confound a thousand conjurers
their inchantments." in their own circles (though with a wet finger
The following spell is from Herrick's “Hesthey could fetch up a little divell).”
perides,” p. 304 : In Osborne's “Advice to his Son," 8vo. * Holy water come and bring; Oxf. 1656, p. 100, speaking of the soldiery, Cast in salt for seasoning; that author says, “ They, like the spirits of con
Set the brush for sprinkling :
Sacred spittle bring ye hither ;
that the steward has made his bargain with Meale and it now mix together; the cunning man beforehand, that he shall And a little oyle to either :
stand to all costs and damages.” Give the tapers here their light,
(3) In Thomas Lodge's * Devils Incarnat Ring the saints-bell to affright
of this Age,” 4to. Lond. 1596, in the Epistle Far from hence the evill sprite."
to the Reader, are the following quaint allu
sions to Sorcerers and Magicians: * Buy thereThe subsequent will not be thought an un- fore this Christall, and you shall see them in pleasant comment on the popular creed con- their common appearance: and read these excerning spirits and haunted houses. It is orcismes advisedly, and you may be sure to taken from a scene in Mr. Addison's well- conjure them without crossings : but if any known comedy of “ The Drummer, or the man long for a familiar for false dice, a spirit Haunted House :" the gardener, butler, and to tell fortunes, a charme to heale disease, this coachman of the family, are the dramatis per- only book can best fit him."
Vallancey, in his “ Collectanea de Rebus “ Gardn. Prithee, John, what sort of a crea- Hibernicis," No. xiii. p. 17, says: “ In the ture is a conjurer?
Highlands of Scotland a large chrystal, of a Butl. Why he's made much as other men figure somewhat oval, was kept by the priests are, if it was not for his long grey beard.- to work charms by; water poured upon it at His beard is at least half a yard long : he's this day is given to cattle against diseases : dressed in a strange dark cloke, as black as a these stones are now preserved by the oldest cole. He has a long white wand in his hand. aud most superstitious in the country (Shawe).
Coachm. I fancy’tis made out of witch elm. They were once common in Ireland. I am
Gardn. I warrant you if the ghost appears informed the Earl of Tyrone is in possession he'll whisk you that wand before his eyes, and of a very fine one." strike you the drum-stick out of his hand. In Andrews's “ Continuation of Henry's
Butl. No; the wand, look ye, is to make a History of Great Britain,” p. 388, we read : circle; and if he once gets the ghost in a cir- “ The conjurations of Dr. Dee having induced cle, then he has him. A circle, you must his familiar spirit to visit a kind of talisman, know, is a conjurer's trap.
Kelly (a brother adventurer) was appointed Coachm. But what will he do with him when to watch and describe his gestures. The stone he has him there?
used by these impostors is now in the StrawBuil. Why then he'll overpower him with berry Hill Collection. It appears to be a his learning.
polished piece of canal coal. To this Butler Gardn. If he can once compass him, and refers when he writes, get him in Lob's pound, he'll make nothing
“ Kelly did all his feats upon
The devil's looking-glass, a stone."
In “ The Museum Tradescantianum," 8vo.
Lond. 1660, p. 42, we find an “ Indian Conhis grave again with a flea in his ear, I war
jurer's Rattle, wherewith he calls up spirits.”. rant him.
(4) Butler's description, in his “ Hudibras,” Butl. But if the conjurer be but well paid, of a cunning man or fortune-teller, is fraught he'll take pains upon the ghost and lay him,
with a great deal of his usual pleasantry: look ye, in the Red Sea and then he's laid for ever.
“ Quoth Ralph, not far from hence doth Gardn. Why, John, there must be a power
To whom all people far and near
When brass and pewter hap to stray, rabble, he discovers anything, 'tis done by the And linen slinks out of the way ;.
same occult hermetic learning, heretofore proWhen geese and pullen are seduc'd, fest by the renowned Moll Cut-Purse." And sows of sucking pigs are chows’d; They are still called “ Wise Men” in the When cattle feel indisposition,
villages of Durham and Northumberland. And need th' opinion of physician;
The following was communicated to the When murrain reigns in hogs or sheep, , editor of the present work by a Yorkshire genAnd chickens languish of the pip;
tleman, in the year 1819: When yeast and outward means do fail
Impostors who feed and live on the superAnd have no pow'r to work on ale;
stitions of the lower orders are still to be found When butter does refuse to come,
in Yorkshire. These are called “Wise Men,' And love proves cross and humoursome ; and are believed to possess the most extraorTo him with questions and with urine dinary power in remedying all diseases inci. They for discovery flock, or curing.” dental to the brute creation, as well as the
human race, to discover lost or stolen proAllusions to this character are not uncom
perty, and to foretell future events. One of mon in our old plays.
these wretches was a few years ago living at In “ Albumazar,” a comedy, 4to. 1634,
Stokesley, in the North Riding of Yorkshire; signat. Cb,
his name was John Wrightson, and he called “ He tells of lost plate, horses, and straye
himself the seventh son of a seventh son,' cattell
and professed ostensibly the trade of a cowDirectly, as he had stolne them all him- doctor. To this fellow, people, whose educaselfe."
tion it might have been expected would
have raised them above such weakness, Again, in “ Ram Alley, or Merry Tricks," flocked; many to ascertain the thief, when 4to. Lond. 1636, signat. B 3,
they had lost any property; others for him “ Fortune-teller, a pretty rogue
to cure themselves or their cattle of some inThat never saw five shillings in a heape,
describable complaint. Another class visited Will take upon him to divine men's fate,
him to know their future fortunes; and some Yet never knows himselfe shall dy a beggar,
to get him to save them from being balloted Or be hang'd up for pilfering table-cloaths,
into the militia; all of which he professed Shirts, and smocks, hanged out to dry on
himself able to accomplish. All the diseases hedges.”
which he was sought to remedy he invariably
imputed to witchcraft, and although he In “ The Character of a Quack-Astrolo- gave drugs which have been known to do ger,” 4to. Lond. 1673, signat. A 3 b, our good, yet he always enjoined some incantawise man,
a gipsey of the upper form,” is tion to be observed, without which he decalled “a three-penny prophet that under- clared they could never be cured; this was takes the telling of other folks fortunes, sometimes an act of the most wanton barbameerly to supply the pinching necessities of rity, as that of roasting a game cock alive, his own.
&c. The charges of this man were always exIbid. signat. B 3, our cunning man is said travagant; and such was the confidence in his to begin with theft; and to help people to skill and knowledge, that he had only to what they have lost, picks their pocket afresh: name any person as a witch, and the public not a ring or a spoon is nim`d away, but indignation was sure to be directed against payes him twelve-pence toll, and the ale.
the poor unoffending creature for the remaindrapers' often-straying tankard yields him a der of her life. constant revenue: for that purpose he main- « An instance of the fatal consequences of tains as strict a correspondence with gilts this superstition occurred within my knowand lifters as a mountebank with applauding ledge, about the year 1800. A farmer of Midwives and recommending Nurses: and if the name of Hodgson had been robbed of at any time, to keep up his credit with the
some money. He went to a wise man'