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to learn the thief, and was directed to some process by which he should discover it. A servant of his of the name of Simpson, who had committed the robbery, fearing the discovery by such means, determined to add murder to the crime, by killing his master. The better to do this without detection, he forged a letter as from the wise man to Mr. Hodgson, enclosing a quantity of arsenic, which he was directed to take on going to bed, and assuring him that in the morning he would find his money in the pantry under a wooden bowl. Hodgson took the powder, which killed him. Simpson was taken up, tried at York assizes, and convicted on strong circumstantial evidence.

He received sentence of death, and when on the scaffold confessed his crime."

Vallancey, in his “ Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis,” No. xiii. p. 10, tells us that in Ireland they are called Tamans. “I know,” says he, “a farmer's wife in the county of Waterford, that lost a parcel of linen. She travelled three days' journey to a Taman, in the county of Tipperary : he consulted' his black book, and assured her she would recover the goods. The robbery was proclaimed at the chapel, offering a reward, and the linen was recovered. It was not the money but the Taman that recovered it.”

In Strype's edition of “Stow's Survey of London,” B. i. p. 257, we read, “ A.D. 1560, a skinner of Southwark was set on the pillory with a paper over his head, shewing the cause, viz. for sundry practices of great falsehood, and much untruth; and all set forth under the colour of Southsaying."

Andrews, in his “ Continuation of Dr. Henry's History of Great Britain," 4to. p. 194, speaking of the death of the Earl of Angus in 1588, tells us, as a proof of the blind superstition of the age, “ he died (says a venerable author) of sorcery and incantation.” “ A wizard, after the physicians had pronounced him to be under the power of witchcraft, made offer to cure him, saying (as the manner of these wizards is) that he had received wrong. But the stout and pious Earl declared that his life was not so dear unto him as that, for the continuance of some years, he would be beholden to any of the devil's instruments, and died.”

The following curious passage is from Thomas Lodge's “ Incarnate Devils,” 4to. Lond. 1596, p. 13: “ There are many in London now adaies that are besotted with this sinne, one of whom I saw on a white horse in Fleet-street, a tanner knave I never lookt on, who with one tigure (cast out of a scholler's studie for a necessary servant at Bocordo) promised to find any man's oxen were they lost, restore any man's goods if they were stolne, and win any man love, where or howsoever he settled it, but his jugling knacks were quickly discovered."

In " Articles of Inquirie given in Charge by the Bishop of Sarum, a. D. 1614," 4to. Lond. 1614, is the following : “ 67. Item, whether you have any conjurers, charmers, calcours, witches, or fortune-tellers, who they are, and who do resort unto them for counsell ?''

(5) Butler, in his “ Hudibras," has the following :

" with a sleight
Convey men's interest, and right,
From Stiles's pocket into Nokes's
As easily as hocus pocus.”

P. iii. c. iii. 1. 713. Archbishop Tillotson tells us that “in all probability those common juggling words of hocus pocus are nothing else but a corruption of hoc est Corpus, by way of ridiculous imitation of the priests of the Church of Rome in their trick of transubstantiation, &c.” Ser. xxvi. Discourse on Transubstant.

Vallancey, in his “ Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis," No. xiii. p. 93, speaking of Hocus Pocus, derives it from the Irish“ Coic, an omen, a mystery; and bais, the palm of the hand; whence is formed coiche-bais, legerdemain ; Persicè, choco-baz: whence the vulgar English hocus pocus.” He is noticing the communication in former days between Ireland and the East.

Hiccius doctius is a common term among our modern slight-of-hand men. The origin of this is probably to be found among the old Roman Catholics. When the good people of this island were under their thraldom, their priests were looked up to with the greatest veneration, and their presence announced in the assemblies with the terms Hic est doctus . hic est doctus! and this probably is the origin


of the modern corruption Hiccius doctius. jurer. If a farmer loses his cattle, the houses M. F."

must be purified with water sprinkled by In the “ Statistical Account of Scotland," him. In searching for the latent mischief, vol. xii. p. 465, in the account of the parish this gentleman never fails to find little parcels of Kirkmichael, county of Banff, we read : of heterogeneous ingredients lurking in the

Among the branches into which the moss. walls, consisting of the legs of mice and the
grown trunk of superstition divides itself, may wings of bats; all the work of the witches.
be reckoned witchcraft and magic. These, Few things seem too arduous for his abilities;
though decayed and withered by time, still and though, like Paracelsus, he has not as
retain some faint traces of their ancient ver- yet boasted of having discovered the philo-
dure. Even at present witches are supposed, sopher's stone, yet, by the power of his oc-
as of old, to ride on broomsticks through cult science, he still attracts a little of their
the air. In this country, the 12th of May is gold from the pockets where it lodges, and
one of their festivals. On the morning of in this way makes a shift to acquire subsist-
that day they are frequently seen dancing on ence for himself and family.”
the surface of the water of Avon, brushing There is a folio sheet, printed at London,
the dews of the lawn, and milking cows in 1561, preserved in a collection of Miscel-
their fold. Any uncommon sickness is ge- lanies in the archives of the Society of Anti-
nerally attributed to their demoniacal prac- quaries of London, lettered Miscel. Q. Eliz.
tices. They make fields barren fertile, No. 7, entitled, “ The unfained retractation of
raise or still whirlwinds, give or take away Fraunces Cox, which he uttered at the pillery
milk at pleasure. The force of their incanta- in Chepesyde and elswhere, accordyng to the
tions is not to be resisted, and extends even to counsels commaundement anno 1561, 25th
the moon in the midst of her aerial career. of June, beying accused for the use of cer-
It is the good fortune, however, of this coun- tayne sinistral and divelysh artes.” In this
try to be provided with an anti-conjurer that he says that from a child he began to prac-
defeats both them and their sable patron in tise the most divelish and supersticious know-
their combined efforts. His fame is widely ledge of necromancie, and invocations of
diffused, and wherever he goes crescit eundo. spirites, and curious astrology. He now ut-
If the spouse is jealous of her husband, the terly renounces and forsakes all such divelish
anti-conjurer is consulted to restore the affec- sciences, wherein the name of God is most
tions of his bewitched heart. If a near con- horribly abused, and society or pact with
nexion lies confined to the bed of sickness, it wicked spirits most detestably practised, as
is in vain to expect relief without the bal- necromancie, geomancie, and that curious part
samic medicine of the anti-conjurer.

of astrology wherein is contained the calcu-
person happens to be deprived of his senses, lating of nativities or casting of nativities,
the deranged cells of the brains must be ad- with all other the magikes.
justed by the magic charms of the anti-con-

If a

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“I know thee well; I heare the watchfull dogs,
With hollow howling, tell of thy approach;
The lights burne dim, affrighted with thy presence:
And this distempered and tempestuous night
Tells me the ayre is troubled with some devill.”

Merry Devil of Edmonton, 4to. 1631, signat. A 3 b.
“ Ghosts never walk till after midnight, if

my Grannam."
Beaumont and Fletcher. Lover's Progress, act 4.

I may

“A ghost,” according to Grose, “is “Sometimes Ghosts appear in consequence supposed to be the spirit of a person deceased, of an agreement made, whilst living, with who is either commissioned to return for some some particular friend, that he who first died especial errand, such as the discovery of a should appear to the survivor. murder, to procure restitution of lands or “ Glanvil tells us of the Ghost of a person money unjustly withheld from an orphan or who had lived but a disorderly kind of life, widow, or, having committed some injustice for which it was condemned to wander up whilst living, cannot rest till that is redressed. and down the earth, in the company of evil Sometimes the occasion of spirits revisiting spirits, till the day of judgment. this world is to inform their heir in what se

“In most of the relations of Ghosts they are cret place, or private drawer in an old trunk, they had hidden the title deeds of the estate ;

supposed to be mere aerial beings, without

substance, and that they can pass through or where, in troublesome times, they buried

walls and other solid bodies at pleasure. A their money or plate. (1) Some Ghosts of mur

particular instance of this is given in Reladered persons, whose bodies have been secretly

tion the 27th in Glanvil's Collection, where buried, cannot be at ease till their bones have

one David Hunter, neat-herd to the Bishop of been taken up, and deposited in consecrated

Down and Connor, was for a long time haunted ground, with all the rites of Christian burial. This idea is the remain of a very old piece of

by the Apparition of an old woman, whom he

was by a secret impulse obliged to follow heathen superstition: the ancients believed that Charon was not permitted to ferry over

whenever she appeared, which he says he did

for a considerable time, even if in bed with the Ghosts of unburied persons, but that they his wife: and because his wife could not hold wandered up and down the banks of the River

him in his bed, she would go too, and walk Styx for an hundred years, after which they

after him till day, though she saw nothing; were admitted to a passage. This is men

but his little dog was so well acquainted with tioned by Virgil :

the Apparition, that he would follow it as * Hæc omnis quam cernis, inops inhumataque well as his master. If a tree stood in her turba est :

walk he observed her always to go through it. Portitor ille, Charon; hi quos vehit unda, Notwithstanding this seeming immateriality, sepulti.

this very Ghost was not without some subNec ripas datur horrendas, nec rauca fluenta, stance ; for, having performed her errand, she Trasportare prius quam sedibus ossa quiê desired Hunter to lift her from the ground, in

the doing of which, he says, she felt just like Centum errant annos, volitantque hæc lit a bag of feathers. We sometimes also read of tora circum:

Ghosts striking violent blows; and that, if not Tum, demum admissi, stagna exoptata made way for, they overturn all impediment, revisunt.'

like a furious whirlwind. Glanvil mentions


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an instance of this, in Relation 17th, of a have busied themselves in accounting for it, Dutch lieutenant who had the faculty of without once doubting the truth of the fact. seeing Ghosts; and who, being prevented mak- Dogs too have the faculty of seeing spirits, as ing way for one which he mentioned to some is instanced in David Hunter's relation, above friends as coming towards them, was, with his quoted; but in that case they usually show companions, violently thrown down, and sorely signs of terror, by whining and creeping to bruised. We further learn, by Relation 16th, their master for protection : and it is generally that the band of a Ghost is as cold as a clod.' supposed that they often see things of this na

“ The usual time at which ghosts make ture when their owner cannot; there being their appearance is midnight, and seldom some persons, particularly those born on a before it is dark; though some audacious Christmas Eve, who cannot see spirits. spirits have been said to appear even by day- • The coming of a spirit is announced some light: but of this there are few instances, and time before its appearance by a variety of those mostly Ghosts who have been laid, per- loud and dreadful noises ; sometimes rattling haps in the Red Sea (of which more hereafter), in the old hall like a coach and six, and and whose times of confinement were expired: rumbling up and down the staircase like the these, like felons confined to the lighters, are trundling of bowls or cannon-balls. At length said to return more troublesome and daring the door flies open, and the spectre stalks than before. No Ghosts can appear on Christ- slowly up to the bed's foot, and opening the mas Eve; this Shakspeare has put into the curtains, looks steadfastly at the person in bed mouth of one of his characters in Hamlet.' by whom it is seen; a Ghost being very rarely

Ghosts," Grose adds, “commonly appear in visible to more than one person, although the same dress they usually wore whilst living ; there are several in company. It is here though they are sometimes clothed all in necessary to observe, that it has been univer

but that is chiefly the churchyard sally found by experience, as well as affirmed Ghosts, who have no particular business, but by divers Apparitions themselves, that a Ghost seem to appear pro bono publico, or to scare has not the power to speak till it has been first drunken rustics from tumbling over their spoken to : so that, notwithstanding the urgraves.

gency of the business on which it may come, “I cannot learn that Ghosts carry tapers in everything must stand still till the person their hands, as they are sometimes depicted, visited can find sufficient courage to speak to though the room in which they appear, if with- it: an event that sometimes does not take place out fire or candle, is frequently said to be as for many years. It has not been found that light as day. Dragging chains is not the female Ghosts are more loquacious than those fashion of English Ghosts; chains and black of the male sex, both being equally restrained vestments being chiefly the accoutrements of by this law. foreign spectres, seen in arbitrary governments: “The mode of addressing a Ghost is by dead or alive, English spirits are free. One commanding it, in the name of the three perinstance, however, of an English Ghost dressed sons of the Trinity, to tell you who it is, and in black is found in the celebrated ballad of what is its business : this it may be necessary • William and Margaret,' in the following to repeat three times; after which it will, in a

low and hollow voice, declare its satisfaction And clay-cold was her lily hand,

at being spoken to, and desire the party adThat held her sable shroud.'

dressing it not to be afraid, for it will do him

no harm. This being premised, it commonly “ This, however, may be considered as a poet- enters into its narrative, which being comical licence, used, in all likelihood, for the pleted, and its request or commands given, sake of the opposition of lily to sable.

with injunctions that they be immediately “If, during the time of an Apparition, there executed, it vanishes away, frequently in a is a lighted candle in the room, it will burn flash of light; in which case, some Ghosts have extremely blue: this is so universally ac- been so considerate as to desire the party to knowledged, that many eminent philosophers whom they appeared to shut their eyes: some

lines :


times its departure is attended with delightful times terrifying them, as in Glanvil's Rela. music. During the narration of its business, tion 26th, by appearing in many formidable a Ghost must by no means be interrupted by shapes, and sometimes even striking them a questions of any kind; so doing is extremely violent blow. Of blows given by Ghosts there dangerous : if any doubts arise, they must be are many instances, and some wherein they stated after the spirit has done its tale. Ques- have been followed with an incurable lametions respecting its state, or the state of any of their former acquaintance, are offensive, and not " It should have been observed that Ghosts, often answered; spirits, perhaps, being restrain- in delivering their commissions, in order to ed from divulging the secrets of their prison- ensure belief, communicate to the persons house. Occasionally spirits will even conde- employed some secret, known only to the parscend to talk on common occurrences, as is ties concerned and themselves, the relation of instanced by Glanvil in the Apparition of which always produces the effect intended. Major George Sydenham to Captain William The business being completed, Ghosts appear Dyke, Relation 10th. (*)

with a cheerful countenance, saying they shall “ It is somewhat remarkable that Ghosts do now be at rest, and will never more disturb not go about their business like the persons of any one; and, thanking their agents, by way this world. In cases of murder, a Ghost, in- of reward communicate to them something stead of going to the next justice of the peace relative to themselves, which they will never and laying its information, or to the nearest re- reveal. lation of the person murdered, appears to some “Sometimes Ghosts appear, and disturb a poor labourer who knows none of the parties, house, without deigning to give any reason for draws the curtains of some decrepit nurse or so doing : with these, the shortest and only alms-woman, or hovers about the place where way is to exorcise (3) and eject them; or, as bis body is deposited. The same circuitous the vulgar term is, lay them. For this purmode is pursued with respect to redressing in- pose there must be two or three clergymen, and jured orpbans or widows: when it seems as if the ceremony must be performed in Latin; a the shortest and most certain way would be language that strikes the most audacious Ghost to go to the person guilty of the injustice, and with terror. A Ghost may be laid for any haunt bim continually till he be terrified into term less than an hundred years, and in any a restitution. Nor are the pointing out lost place or body, full or empty; as, a solid oakwritings generally managed in a more sum- the pommel of a sword-a barrel of beer, if a mary way; the Ghost commonly applying to yeoman or simple gentleman-or a pipe of a third person ignorant of the whole affair, and wine, if an esquire or a justice. But of all a stranger to all coucerned.

But it is pre

places the most common, and what a Ghost sumptuous to scrutinize too far into these least likes, is the Red Sea; it being related in matters : Ghosts have undoubtedly forms and many instances, that Ghosts have most earnestly customs peculiar to themselves.

besought the exorcists not to confine them in “ If, after the first appearance, the persons that place. It is nevertheless considered as an employed neglect, or are prevented from, per- indisputable fact, that there are an infinite forming the message or business committed to number laid there, perhaps from its being a their management, the Ghost appears continu- safer prison than any other nearer at hand; ally to them, at first with a discontented, next though neither history nor tradition gives us an angry, and at length with a furious coun- any instance of Ghosts escaping or returning tenance, threatening to tear them in pieces if from this kind of transportation before their the matter is not forthwith executed: some


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