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of life. The cause of their disappearing about the twentyseventh or twenty-eighth year must have been the shifting or concentration of diseased action upon the internal and more important organs, the stomach and the brain. When these becamejrelieved by the vegetable regimen, the extremities became again affected. Disease, therefore, though seated in different organs, may be the same in kind; and we may conclude that it is the property of this regimen, and in particular of the vegetable diet, to transfer diseased action from the viscera to the exterior parts of the body, from the central parts of the system to the periphery. Vegetable diet has often been charged with causing cutaneous diseases; in common language, they are, in these cases, said to proceed from poorness of blood. In a degree the charge is probably just; and the observation I have just made may give us some insight into the cause of it. But this charge, instead of being a just cause of reproach, is a proof of the superior salubrity of vegetable diet. Cutaneous jruptions appear, because disease is translated from the internal organs to the skin.
2d. There was an interval of fifteen or sixteen years from the disappearance of these pains, in consequence of the gradual changes introduced into the system by the use of animal food, and their being brought back again by the vegetable regimen. Now, during all this number of years, there was neither inflammation, pain, tenderness, nor any other external sign of there being any disease of these extremities. But from the changes which took place, as soon as the vegetable regimen was adopted, it is clear that they were really diseased at this period, and had been so during the whole interval of fifteen or sixteen years. Disease should be considered, therefore, not so much as an obvious change in the texture of parts, which is either visible or tangible, as a change in the inherent powers, which belong to the part as a living substance. The more palpable changes, which constitute the symptoms of disease, are the consequence of the previous and imperceptible changes which have taken place in the vital powers of the part. The inherent vitality of the part, that which distinguishes every portion of the living body from dead matter, may be, and often is, nearly extinguished, when there is no such change of structure as can be readily detected by the senses.
3d. As, in the affection of the head, paroxysms, the very same in kind, but differing in intensity, continued to recur, even for years after animal food had been discontinued, it must follow that whatever was the proximate cause of the paroxysms, under the mixed regimen, the same continued to be the proximate cause under the vegetable regimen. If, therefore, there was increased vascular action in the brain, or in its appendages, when these paroxysms first took place, and forming the foundation of them, the same increased action, that is to say, the same in kind, but not in degree, has continued for a cmirse of many years under a diet of vegetables alone. We see, then, how ill-founded is the notion that inanition and loss of power is induced by a vegetable diet. In fact, all the observations that have been made, have shown the very reverse to be the truth. Symptoms of plenitude and oppression have continued in considerable force for at least five years. And the consequence of this peculiar regimen has been an increase of strength and power, and not a diminution. In the subject of this case, the pulse, which may be deemed, perhaps, the best index to the condition of all the other functions, is at present much more full and strong than under the use of animal food. It is also perfectly calm and regular.
4th. We may, from the circumstances of this case, form something like an estimate of the time during which the obvious effects of animal diet will remain in the system. In the instance before us, there was a gouty affection of strength or intensity, sufficient to produce lameness, after the animal food and every other matter which co-operates to produce such a disease had been discontinued four years and a half. I said therefore to myself, if this degree of disease can remain four years and a half, supposing the intensity of the diseased condition to continue uniformly to decline at the same rate, we ought still to expect some slight vestiges of the original affection at double the distance of time, or at the end of nine years. It is obviously improper to transfer this precise result to any other case whatever; every one must be judged by its own proper and peculiar circumstances. But a similar mode of reasoning, and a probable anticipation of future events, may, I conceive, be applied to any case whatever, according to the- phenomena which it presents.
To finish, therefore, this long account: After four years and a half, the gouty affection still continued, but its strength became so much diminished, that the lameness never again appeared. Sometimes there has been a slight stiffness of the heel; sometimes pains of the toes, with redness and soreness of them all. Through the whole of the seventh year (1812), there was a stiffness and some pain of the left knee. But finally, in the eighth year, the whole of these external pains have disappeared, with the exception of that trifling affection of the head, which has been mentioned.
Nor has this gouty disorder been the only external disease which may be said to have been induced by the vegetable regimen. Formerly he hardly knew (as has been said) what it was to have a cough or a cold; the stomach or bowels were on all occasions of exposure the principal sufferers. But at the end of the second year of the vegetable regimen, he had angina, infinitely more severe than he had ever suffered before. The attempt to swallow was perfect agony. He has since had many severe coughs and colds, attended with much defluxion. There has also been much itching on the surface of the body, particularly on the head, the hams, and the legs. But to compensate for these trifling evils, now the stomach and bowels never suffer. ,
And as to the general state of health, it has uniformly and regularly improved, and more obviously since the fifth year than before that time. During the first five years there were many threatenings of the return of his former disorders, but which came to nothing. In particular, in the spring of the fourth year (1810), he looked thin and ill, had great agitation and restless nights; the bowels became tense; and once he threw up his food. But all this passed off without any real illness; and he can say in general that, with the exception of the attack of angina, which kept him within doors for three or four days, he has not now for the space of seven years suffered the confinement of a single hour.
With regard to fermented liquors, his experience is shortly as follows. He was at all times habitually sober—a habit to which, in this instance, he attaches no personal merit—since he never liked wine, and it occasioned heat and uneasiness. He, therefore, till near thirty years old, confined himself to a single glass of wine daily, as his constant habit when not in company. But after that time, he felt compelled in a manner to use more wine; he felt chilly and uneasy, and found that by the use of about three glasses of wine daily, he was warmer, was more cheerful and active, and had in every respect less uneasy feeling. But by the use of the pure water, he found these uneasy sensations greatly diminished, and the necessity for wine appeared removed. He was, therefore, enabled gradually to leave it off entirely; and at present he finds fermented liquor of any kind obviously injurious.
These observations instructed him how substances may introduce into the system a quantity of agreeable sensation, or destroy uneasy feelings, which are at the same time ultimately injurious, and concur with other causes to destroy the vital powers.
He had, when living on common diet, been habitually thirsty, and like most persons inclined to studious and sedentary habits, was much attached to tea-drinking. But for the last two or three years, he has almost wholly relinquished the use of liquids; and by the substitution of fruit and recent vegetables, he has found that the sensation of thirst has been, in a manner, abolished. Even tea has lost its charms, and he very rarely uses it. He is therefore certain, from his own experience, that the habit of employing liquids is wholly an artificial habit, and not necessary to any of the functions of the animal economy.
lie has chosen to denominate this affection of the head atonic gout, induced by the obvious connection between it and the gouty pains. The general habit was of that kind, that it would have been said that there was not sufficient strength of constitution to throw out the gout upon the limbs. But if it should seem more proper to any one to suppose this disease a disposition to apoplexy, palsy, or any other of the great diseases originating in the brain, I should not think it worth contending about. Such disorders affecting gouty subjects cannot be distinguished from the same disorders affecting persons not subject to gout.
1 may, in relation to this long history, have been tedious, and seem needlessly minute to most of my readers. But in truth, I have omitted many circumstances for the sake of brevity. There is no other case, the circumstances of which can be so strongly impressed upon my mind, and of which I can so fully warrant the correctness of statement. The conclusions, too, which I have drawn from the facts, are general conclusions, illustrative of the universal laws of diseased action. I shall, therefore, be absolved from the necessity of employing the same minuteness in what I have further to relate. If those for whose service these labors are principally designed—I mean persons suffering under habitual and chronical illness—are enabled to go along with me in my argument, to form a general correct notion of what they are to expect from regimen, and, above all, to arm their minds with firmness, patience, and perseverance, I shall not readily be induced to think that I have written one superfluous line.
Nov. 15th, 1814.—I feel it needful to add to this account no more than that the pains of the head are at present still more trifling', and as nearly gone as possible. To say that they are wholly removed would not be the truth.
Disposition to Pulmonary Consumption.
August 25, 1813.—L. W. L., aged sixteen, had in the first years of his life every mark of a deep scrofulous habit. He was of a fair and pale complexion, and at six years of age the skin was rough, the eyelids habitually red, the muscles weak and soft, the joints tumid. He had suffered one severe attack of abdominal inflammation; the abdomen was always hard and tumid, though great attention was paid to regularity in his diet, and he constantly required medicine to keep the bowels regular. To these appearances was added a thinness which might be justly called emaciation, and a generally unhealthy, pallid, and sickly appearance. These appeared to me sufficient indications of a diseased state of the mesenteric glands, which is a precursor or concomitant of pulmonary consumption.
This general state of health was greatly amended by the use of the pure water, which was adopted in May, 1803; the habit was strengthened, the bowels became soft and regular, and the countenance became more healthful. From having been an inhabitant of the country, he had become, in the autumn of 1803, an inhabitant of London; and it was observable in him, that a child, who in the country was subject to frequent indispositions, was, by this attention only, in the heart of the metropolis, for about sixteen months kept free from every sort of illness.
About Christmas, 1804, he had a mild ulcerated sore throat, which appeared to have been received by contagion. After this, though he suffered very little at the time, the health began rather to fail. It left a constant hacking dry cough, which remained fixed for three or four months. At this time, instinctively, he left off animal food, and the cough disappeared in the spring, 1805. He then, spontaneously also, returned to the use of animal food, which I did not oppose, my opinion at that time being that the appetite should be taken as the guide for the species of food best suited to the present state of the body. I did not at that time consider that the fondness for animal food is wholly factitious, and could not in fact exist independent of