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“One half of all born in the mountains live to the age of 47. In the marshy parish, one half live only to the age of 25. In the hills, 1 in 20 of all that are born live to 80. În the marshy parish, only 1 in 52 reaches this age. In the hills, a person aged 40 has a chance of 80 to 1 for living a year. In the marshy parish, his chance of living a year is not 30 to 1. In the hills, persons aged 20, 30, and 40, have an even chance for living 41, 33, and 25 years, respectively. In the fenny parish, persons at those ages have an even chance of living only 30, 23, and 15 years.”

The average mortality of England and Wales is calculated, in the year 1810, to be 1 in 49. In the parts subject to the ague, Kent, Essex, Cambridgeshire, and the East Riding of Yorkshire, the mortality is above this average. At Boston, in the fens of Lincolnshire, the mortality is 1 in 27. At Stamford, which is in the dry and upland division of the same county, it is only 1 in 50.

The duration of human life, then, is regulated by fixed and invariable laws. Nor does it at all affect the general deductions drawn from these facts, though the observations on which they are founded should not be correctly applicable to the present state of things. It is thought, and probably with reason, that the healthiness both of this empire and of the metropolis is improved since the time when Dr. Price published his observations. Dr. Heberden, the younger, estimates the present rate of mortality in London to be 1 in 30 nearly ; a prodigious improvement if it be just! But it has been always found that the external circumstances of society remaining unchanged, the rate of mortality is uniform; and when this rate has been found to undergo any considerable and permanent alteration, it may be traced to some corresponding change in these circumstances, The extension of agriculture ; draining and enclosure of wastes; cleansing of towns; ventilation of private houses ; improvements in diet and clothing; such, in general, are the sources of improved health and prolonged life. I suspect myself that the increased cultivation of the potato, and its very general use among the laboring classes of London, has, more than any other single cause, contributed to the improved health of the metropolis. *

A fact related by Mr. Malthus, with regard to the town of Geneva, proves how great a change has really taken place in

* I have heard it suggested, not perhaps without reason, that the substitution of cotton for woolen clothing has been the cause of the disappearance in so great a degree, of late years, of the low contagious or tvphus fever.

the same spot, and at no very distant period of time. In this town, in the sixteenth century, the probability of life, or the age to which half the born lived, was only 4.883—rather less than four years and nine tenths; and the mean life 18.511about eighteen years and a half. In the seventeenth century the probability of life was 11.607-above eleven years and a half; the mean life 23.358. In the eighteenth century the probability of life had increased to 27.183_twenty-seven years and nearly a fifth ; and the mean life to thirty-two years and a fifth.

The conclusions which forced themselves upon the mind of the enlightened and respectable writer who has principally furnished me with these materials, I cannot refrain from giving in his own language: “Death,” says Mr. Price, “is an evil to which the order of Providence has subjected every inhabitant of this earth; but to men it has been rendered unspeakably more an evil than it was designed to be. The greatest part of that black catalogue of diseases which ravage human life, is the offspring of the tenderness, the luxury, and the corruptions introduced by the vices and false refinements of civil society. That delicacy which is injured by every breath of air, and that rottenness of constitution which is the effect of indolence, intemperance, and debauchery, was never intended by the Author of nature; and it is impossible that they should not lay the foundation of numberless sufferings, and terminate in premature and miserable deaths.” To the same purpose, says another writer who is very competent to form a correct opinion, when his judgment is not warped by a favorite hypothesis : “Diseases have been generally considered as the inevitable inflictions of Providence; but perhaps the greater part of them may more justly be considered as indications that we have offended against some of the laws of nature.” When persons of enlarged minds, and who are unfettered by professional prejudices, arrive at the same conclusions, it affords no weak presumption that they are justly formed.

These intelligent writers, then, have concluded that our discases are, for the most part, artificial. But we must not confine ourselves to vague and barren generalities. It is essential to view the subject still more closely, and attend more exactly to the consequences which flow irresistibly from the data which have been established. This is the more necessary as there are, I think, many incorrect notions afloat on these subjects, and many who are acquainted with the fact; do not appear impressed with their proper consequences..

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the same spot, and at no very distant period of time. In this town, in the sixteenth century, the probability of life, or the age to which half the born lived, was only 4.853–rather less than four years and nine tenths; and the mean life 16.511about eighteen years and a half. In the seventeenth century the probability of life was 11.607-above eleven years and a half; the mean life 23.358. In the eighteenth century the probability of life had increased to 27.183—twenty-seven years and nearly a fifth; and the mean life to thirty-two years agd a fifth.

The conclusions which forced themselves upon the mind of the enlightened and respectable writer who bas principas furished me with these materials, I cannot refrain from giving in his own language: “ Death,” says Mr. Price, “is an esi to which the order of Providence has subjected every inhabitant of this earth; but to men it has been rendered unspeakab more an evil than it was designed to be. The greatest part of that black catalogue of diseases which ravage human life, is the offspring of the tenderness, the luxury, and the corruptions introduced by the vices and false refinements of civil society, That delicacy which is injured by every breath of air, and it rottenness of constitution which is the effect of indolence, etemperance, and debauchery, was never intended by the Autres of nature; and it is impossible that they should not lay 1; foundation of numberless sufferings, and terminate in pressat are and miserable deaths.” To the same purpose, mayą wat writer who is very competent to form a correct opitum, non his judgment is not warped by a favorite hypothesis "LAT, have been generally considered as the inevital, 11. Providence; but perhaps the reater part of tham 15:27 shampoo justly be considered as indications that we have offende some of the laws of nature.” When perwis i ens , and who are unfettered by professional prejuda, ar r same conclusions, it affords no weak presumption time ***** justly formed. These intelliger+

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“One half of all born in the mountains live to the age of 47. In the marshy parish, one half live only to the age of 25. In the hills, 1 in 20 of all that are born live to 80. In the marshy parish, only 1 in 52 reaches this aye. In the hills, a person aged 40 has a chance of 80 to 1 for living a year. In the marshy parish, his chance of living a year is not 30 to 1. In the hills, persons aged 20, 30, and 40, have an even chance for living 41, 33, and 25 years, respectively. In the fenny parish, persons at those ages have an even chance of living only 30, 23, and 15 years."

The average mortality of England and Wales is ealculated, in the year 1810, to be 1 in 49. In the parts subject to the ague, Kent, Essex, Cambridgeshire, and the East Riding of Yorkshire, the mortality is above this average. At Boston, in the fens of Lincolnshire, the mortality is 1 in 27. At Stamford, which is in the dry and upland division of the same county, it is only 1 in 50.

The duration of human life, then, is regulated by fixed and invariable laws. Nor does it at all affect the general dedúctions drawn from these facts, though the observations on which they are founded should not be correctly applicable to the present state of things. It is thought, and probably with reason, that the healthiness both of this empire and of the metropolis is improved since the time when Dr. Price published his observations. Dr. Heberden, the younger, estimates the present rate of mortality in London to be 1 in 30 nearly; a prodigious improvement if it be just! But it has been always found that the external circumstances of society remaining unchanged, the rate of mortality is uniform ; and when this rate has been found to undergo any considerable and permanent alteration, it may be traced to some corresponding change in these circumstances. The extension of agriculture; draining and enclosure of wastes; cleansing of towns; ventilation of private houses; improvements in diet and clothing; such, in general, are the sources of improved health and prolonged life. I suspect myself that thr increased cultivation of the potato, and its very general us among the laboring classes of London, has, more than other single cause, contributed to the improved health metropolis.*

A fact related by Mr. Malthus, with regard to Geneva, proves how great a change has really

* I have heard it suggested, not perhaps without re stitution of cotton for woolen clothing has been the ta pearance in so great a degree, of late years, of the lov tvnhus fever.

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