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sending over a competent number of people to lay the Chap. I. ground of a hopeful plantation."*

1607. Under such auspices, a fly-boat, called the “Gift of God," commanded by George Popham, the brother of the and Gilbert chief justice, and a ship called the "Mary and John," com- Plymouth. manded by Raleigh Gilbert, a nephew of Sir Walter Raleigh, sailed from Plymouth in the summer of 1607, with 31 May. one hundred and twenty persons, to found a colony on the Ķennebeck. Both the commanders were patentees of the new charter, and they now carried home with them two of the native savages whom Weymouth had taken to England.t

The adventurers arrived off Penobscot Bay early in Au- 7 August. gust. Thence running westward, they anchored, a few 16 August days, afterward, at the mouth of the Sagadahoc. Popham the Sagadaand Gilbert then manned their boats and "sailed up into the river near forty leagues," to find a fit place for their settlement. On the return of the exploring party," they 18 August. all went ashore, and made choice of a place for their plantation at the mouth or entry of the river, on the west side.” The next day, Richard Seymour, their chaplain, preached 19 August. them a sermon; after which the commission of George Popham, their president, and their colonial laws, were read. The next two months were diligently employed in building a fort and store-house; while Gilbert, with twenty-two of his men, explored the adjacent coasts, between the Penobscot and Casco Bay. Before long, the ship was sent home, in charge of Captain Davies, with news of their progress, and with letters to Chief-justice Popham, asking for a supply of necessaries to be sent to them betimes the next year. I

After the departure of Davies, the remaining colonists finished their intrenched fort, which they named “ Saint George," and armed it with twelve pieces of ordnance.


* Máss. Hist. Coll., xix., 3, President and Council's “Brief Relation,” 1622 ; Purchas, iv., 1827; Prince, 113; Strachey, 162, 163.

+ Strachey, 164; F. Gorges, Brief Narration, Mass. Hist. Coll., xxvi.

# Strachey, 165-179; Gorges, Brief Narration, 54. According to Gorges and Purchas, both the vessels sailed for England on the 15th of December, 1607, leaving forty-five persons only in the colony. Prince, 117.

First vessel built by


5 Feb.

CHAP. I. Fifty houses, besides a church and store-house, were also

constructed within the intrenchments; "and the carpen1607.

ters framed a pretty pinnace of about some thirty tons,

which they called the Virginia ; the chief shipwright beEuropeans within the ing one Digby, of London." Gilbert, meanwhile, endeav

ored to explore more fully the neighboring coasts; but the winter proved so very severe, that “no boat could stir upon any business." To add to their distress, their store-house

took fire, and their provisions in part were burned. Early 1608. in the new year, their president, George Popham, died.

In the mean time, the colonists on the Kennebeck had not been forgotten by their principals at home. In the course of the next summer, Davies returned from England with a ship "laden full of victuals, arms, instruments, and tools." On his arrival, he found that, notwithstanding the death of the president, the colony had prospered ; "all things in good forwardness,” large quantities of furs obtained, a good store of sarsaparilla gathered, and “the new pinnace all finished.” The “ Virginia," of Sagadahoc, was thus the first vessel built by Europeans within the limits of the

original United States. 1607. But with welcome supplies, the mournful intelligence

now reached the colony, that its liberal patron, Chief-jusChief-jus- tice Popham, had died just after the first ships left En

gland ;* and Gilbert also learned that, by the decease of

his brother, he had become heir to a fair estate which re1608. quired his presence in England. As Popham, their pres

ident, was dead, and Gilbert was about to leave them; as no mines, “the main intended benefit to uphold the charge of this plantation," had been discovered; and especially, as they feared that all the other winters would prove

like the first, " the company by no means would stay any longer in the country." They therefore "all embarked in this

10 June Death of


* Sir John Popham died on the 10th of June, 1607. He was a "huge, heavy, ugly man," and in his younger days had actually been a highwayman. In 1592 he was mado Chief Justice of England, and in 1603 presided at the trial of Sir Walter Raleigh, whom he sentenced to death. Lord Campbell, in his biography of Popham, entirely omits ang reference to his early zeal in the cause of American discovery and colonization, which-as much as any other incident in his life-gives lustre to his fame.--Campbell's Lives of the Chief Justices, i., 226.


new-arrived ship, and in the new pinnace, the Virginia, Char. I. and set sail for England." Thus ended the Northern En

1608. glish colony upon the Sagadahoc. On the return of the faultering emigrants to England, their disappointed prin-the colony. cipals, vexed with their pusillanimity, desisted for 5 a long time after" from any further attempts at American colo- 1608 nization ; though a few vessels were still annually employ- 1614. ed in the prosperous fisheries, and in trafficking with the Indians on the coast of Maine.* The

year after the failure of the Plymouth Company's Simian chuirea colony at the Kennebeck, the London Company obtained er,

1609. a more ample charter from the king, by which the affairs 23 May. of Virginia were placed upon a much better footing. The new grant essentially modified the first charter of 1606. 66 The treasurer and company of adventurers and planters of the city of London for the first colony in Virginia” were made a corporate body, to which the political powers, before reserved to the king, were now transferred. An absolute title was also vested in the company to all the territory extending two hundred miles north from Point Comfort, and the same distance to the south, and stretching from the Atlantic westward to the South Sea.† Thus, while the limits of Virginia were expanded westwardly, across the continent, to the Pacific, they were curtailed one degree of latitude on the north. Their first charter of 1606 gave the Virginia Company the right to plant colonies as far north as the forty-first degree. The second charter of 1609 fixed their northern boundary at two hundred miles north of Point Comfort, or about the fortieth parallel of latitude. The Plymouth Company continued to enjoy a nominal existence for eleven years longer, under their first charter ; but, though Smith and Gorges several times during that period endeavored to form new settlements, not a single English colony was permanently planted north of Virginia, until 1620.

Meanwhile, France had continued to look across the At

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French enterprises

* Strachey, 179, 180 ; Purchas, iv., 1828 ; Gorges, N. E., 19; Mass. Hist. Coll., xix., 4; Hubbard, 35-40.

† Stith's Virg., App. ii. ; Chalmers, 25; Hazard, i., 58-72.

plain in Canada.

Chap. I. lantic. Nearly eighty years after Verazzano had reported

to Francis I. the deep river he had found opening into “a most beautiful lake,"* within the headlands forming the “Narrows," in New York harbor, and nearly seventy years

after Cartier had first ascended the Saint Lawrence, a com1602. pany of merchants was organized at Rouen, to develop the

resources of Canada. An expedition was soon fitted out, under the command of the Sieur du Pont Gravé, a wealthy merchant of Saint Malo, who had already made several

voyages to Tadoussac, at the mouth of the deep and gloomy ana Chame Saguenay. By command of the king, Pont Gravé was

accompanied by Samuel de Champlain, of Saint Onge, a

captain in the French navy, who had just before return1603. ed from the West Indies. Early in 1603, Pont Gravé and

Champlain reached Tadoussac, where leaving their ships to trade with the natives for peltries, they pushed boldly up the Saint Lawrence in a small skiff with five sailors, following the track of Cartier as far as the Sault de Saint

Louis at Montreal.† On their return to France, they found 8 Novemb. that Henry IV. had granted to the Huguenot Sieur de

Monts, one of his gentlemen of the bedchamber, who had De Monts' rendered him great services during the wars, a patent for Henry IV. planting a permanent colony in America, between the for

tieth and the forty-sixth degrees of north latitude. The king soon after granted to De Monts and his associates a monopoly of the fur trade in Acadia and the Gulf of Saint

Lawrence. 1604. In the spring of the next year, a new expedition was 7 March. accordingly organized and dispatched from Dieppe. Pi.

loted by Champlain, and accompanied by the Sieur de Poutrincourt, De Monts safely reached the shores of Aca

dia. The beautiful harbor of Port Royal, now Annapolis, Element at pleasing the taste of Poutrincourt, he obtained permission

to establish himself there. De Monts, however, by ChamDe Monts' plain's advice, selecting for his own colony the island of

Saint Croix, in the river which now divides Maine from

patent from

Loutrincourt's setPort Royal.


* “Bellissimo Lago;" see Verazzano's Letter, in N. Y. H. S. Coll., i. (second series), p. 60, quoted, ante, p. 2.

+ Voyages de Champlain, p. 40 (edit. 1632). # Champlain, 42; Hazard, i., 45. Ø Lescarbot, i. ; Chalmers, 82.


Maine and

New Brunswick, built a fort, and passed the winter there; Char. I. and thus, " at a time when there existed no English sub

1604. jects in America, the first permanent settlement was made in Canada during the year 1604."*

But the situation of Saint Croix proving inconvenient, 1605. De Monts, the next spring, transferred his diminished col- French exony to Port Royal ; and, sailing along the coasts of Maine coasts of and Massachusetts, contemporaneously with Weymouth, Mars

, he claimed for France the sovereignty of the country as far as Cape Malebarre. The following autumn he return- Septernber ed to Europe, leaving his colony in charge of Pont Gravé, as his lieutenant, who, with Champlain and Champdore, received instructions to explore the adjacent territory more accurately, and trade among the hostile savages. On his arrival in France, De Monts entered into a new engagement with Poutrincourt, who, accompanied by Marc Lescarbot the historian, I returned to Port Royal with welcome 1606. supplies, just as the dispirited colonists were about embarking for home. The French cabins remained at Acadia ; and under judicious management the colony prospered, until it was surprised and broken up by Samuel Argall with a Virginian force, in 1613. Meanwhile, Henry IV., urged by the complaints of the French traders and fishermen, who were deprived of their accustomed privileges on the coast, revoked the monopoly which he had conferred Revocaon De Monts, to whom, however, he granted a small in-De Monts' demnity for his loss. But the king soon afterward ratified 1607. and confirmed, by his letters patent, the quiet possession of Port Royal to Poutrincourt.

After four years absence, Champlain returned to Champlain France, filled with the ambition of founding a French col- Canada. ony upon the River Saint Lawrence. Moved by Champlain's earnest representations, De Monts succeeded in ob- 1608. taining from the king a new commission to plant a settle


* Chalmers, 82; Champlain, 60.

+ Champlain, 66-93 ; Lescarbot. # Lescarbot, who published, in 1609, his "Histoire de la Nouvelle France,” is described by Charlevoix (i., p. 119) as “un avocat de Paris, un auteur exact, et judicieux, un homme qui eût été aussi capable d'établir une colonie, que d'en écrire l'histoire." $ Champlain, 99,


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