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18 March.

Chap. VIII. liers of the "Old Dominion,” though they did not fail to

insist upon the paramount English title to Delaware Bay, 1633.

were always more amiably disposed toward the Hollanders on the North River, than were those austere neighbors who soon began to people the valley of the Connecticut, and push their thriving villages west and south. It was only natural that the New Netherland Dutch, on their part, should have regarded the inhabitants of Virginia with much more kindliness than they did the colonists of New England. *

After a week's sojourn at Jamestown, De Vries took leave of the hospitable Harvey, who, understanding that " there were no goats at Fort Amsterdam," sent several on

board the yacht, as a present to the governor of New NethDe Vries erland. Returning to Swaanendael with a welcome supthe South ply of provisions, De Vries found that his ship had, mean29 March. while, taken a few whales. But he was now satisfied that

the fishery could not be prosecuted to advantage; and

preparations were, therefore, made for a final departure 14 April. from the South River. Once more Swaanendael was aban

doned to its aboriginal lords; and, for a space, European colonization paused in its progress on the banks of the Delaware.

Wishing to explore the coast, De Vries embarked in his 16 April. yacht; and after a pleasant voyage of two days, arrived Manhattan. before Fort Amsterdam.† Here was lying at anchor, with

her prize, the ship Soutberg, in which Van Twiller had just come out from Holland. De Vries immediately landing, was welcomed by the new director, to whom he reported his disappointment in the whale-fishery on the South River, and intimated his purpose to leave his large ship at anchor near Sandy Hook, and dispatch his yacht, as soon as possible, to trade in New England and Canada.I

* N. Y. H. S. Coll., i. (N. S.), p. 274.

+ De Vries, 111-113. The journal speaks of his visiting "Eyer Haven," or Egg Harbor, and of his anchoring in a fog, on the 15th of April, off" Barende-gat," or Breaker's Inlet, where, in two hours, he took upward of eighty codfish, which were better than those of Newfoundland." These names, to this day, commemorate, in the vernacular of Holland, the early exploration of the coasts of New Jersey by Dutch navigators.

# De Vries, 113,

18 April The En

A few days afterward, the “William," a London vessel, Chap. VIII. arrived at Fort Amsterdam from New Plymouth, whither

1633. she had been dispatched to set up a fishery, and “so to go to trade at Hudson's River.”* The supercargo, or

glish ship “ Koopman," on board this vessel was Jacob Eelkens, the William former commissary at Fort Orange, whom the West India Manhattan. Company had superseded in 1623. After his dismission by the Dutch, he went to England, and was engaged by some London merchants to manage for them an adventure in the peltry trade in New Netherland. Thoroughly in the interest of his English employers, Eelkens now wished to go up the river, and traffic in the neighborhood of his old habitation. But Van Twiller, learning his purpose, demanded his commission, which Eelkens refused to produce. He was now, he said, in English service; and New Netherland itself was British territory, discovered by Hudson, an Englishman. This claim of sovereignty was promptly repelled by the director and his council. Hudson, they admitted, had discovered the river ; but the discovery was made in the service, and at the cost, of the East India Company at Amsterdam; and no English colonists had ever been settled in the country. The river itself was named “Mauritius River, after our Prince of Orange."

Eelkens, intent to accomplish his object, informed Van 17 April. Twiller, after a few days, that he would go up the river, if it cost him his life. The director peremptorily refused his assent, and ordered the Orange flag to be run up at Fort Amsterdam, and a salute of three guns to be fired in honor of the Prince. Eelkens, on his part, caused the English flag to be displayed on board the William, and a similar salute to be fired in honor of King Charles. After lin- Sails up to gering a week before Fort Amsterdam, and failing to re- ange.

24 April. ceive a license, the ship weighed anchor, and boldly sailed up to Fort Orange. The “William," of London, was the first British vessel that ever ascended the North River.

Enraged at this audacity, Van Twiller collected all the

Fort Or

* Winthrop, i., 100.

ler's absurd conduct.

A Dutch force dis

CHAP. VII. people in the fort before his door, and, broaching a cask

of wine, filled a bumper, calling on those who loved the 1633. Van Twii. Prince of Orange and himself to imitate him, and assist

in protecting him from the violence which the Englishman had committed." But the ship was already out of sight, sailing up the river; and the people all began to laugh at their pusillanimous director. De Vries, dining with Van Twiller the same day, told him bluntly that he had “committed great folly." The Englishman had no commission, but only a custom-house clearance to sail to New England, and not to New Netherland. “If it had been my case," said the mortified patroon, “I should have helped him from the fort to some eight-pound iron beans, and have prevented him from going up the river.” The English "are of so haughty a nature, that they think every thing belongs to them.” “ I should send the ship Soutberg after him, and drive him out of the river."*

The counsels of the energetic East India captain at patched to last aroused Van Twiller to action. A few days after

ward, some soldiers, and "a pinnace, a caravel, and a hoy," were dispatched to Fort Orange, with a protest against the intruders, and an order for their departure. In the mean time, Eelkens had pitched a tent about a mile below the fort, and, for a fortnight, had been carrying on a lucrative trade with the Indians, with whose language

and habits his former residence had made him familiar. Houten, the commissary at Fort Orange, had also set up a rival tent beside that of Eelkens, and used every exertion to hinder his trade. When the little fleet arrived at the encampment, the intruders were ordered to retire. Eelkens still persisting, his tent was struck, and his goods reshipped by the Dutch soldiers, who, as they

were thus engaged, "sounded their trumpet in the boat The "Will- in disgrace of the English.” The anchor was weighed at

once, and the ship, accompanied by the Dutch vessels, was Manhattan. taken down to Fort Amsterdam. Here the director re

quired from Eelkens a list of his peltries. This was fur

Fort Orange.


iam" brought down to

* De Vries, 113, 114 ; Hol. Doc., ii., 81-85.



nished; but Van Twiller forbade any of the people at Man- Chap. VIII. hattan, “on pain of death and loss of all their wages," to

1633 sign any certificates respecting Eelkens's treatment. Im- Forced to mediately afterward, the “ William” was convoyed to sea; and her supercargo returned to London, entirely foiled in his purpose of interfering with the Dutch fur trade on the North River, the annual returns from which were now estimated at about sixteen thousand beaver skins.*

Eelkens's intrusive visit, besides damaging the fur trade of the Dutch, did them a much more serious injury. The friendly relations of the Hollanders with the Indians were Hostility of for awhile interrupted, and the injurious seed of discord" toward the was sown between them. Peace was not fully restored, Fort Oruntil many “serious mischiefs" had been effected by the savages, and the colonists at Fort Orange had lost several men and cattle.”+

Van Twiller soon had another opportunity to enforce the trading monopoly of his immediate superiors. Before re-Van Twilturning with his large ship to Holland, De Vries wished tious conto send his yacht, the Squirrel, through Hell-gate, “ toward ward De the north," to trade along the coasts. The director, however, refused his assent, and ordered a lighter alongside, 20 May. to unload the yacht of her ballast; to which her owner demurred, and produced his “exemptions” as a patroon. Van Twiller, however, insisted that “all princes and potentates” were accustomed to search vessels, and that it was his duty to see whether there was any thing on board the yacht subject to the company's tax. He then ordered the guns of Fort Amsterdam to be trained on the Squirrel. Seeing this, De Vries ran to the angle of the fort, where stood the director, with the secretary, and one or two of the council. “The land is full of fools," exclaimed the indignant patroon ; " if you want to shoot, why did you not shoot at the Englishman who violated your river against your will ?” Upon this, “they let their shooting stand;"> and the Squirrel sailed through Hell-gate, followed by a


* Hol. Doc., ii., 51-88; O'Call., i., 145, 146.

+ Hol. Doc., ii., 140-143.


South Riy



Chap. VIII. yacht, which Van Twiller dispatched from Manhattan to

watch her movements. 1633.

The accounts which De Vries brought from the South River indicated the necessity of prompt measures to secure the fur trade and possession of the West India Company there, especially as Fort Nassau had now been, for

some time, deserted by the Dutch. Arendt Corssen was appointed accordingly appointed commissary, and was instructed to ry on the purchase a tract of land on the Schuylkill, which, “for its

fitness and handsome situation, as well in regard of trade as of culture," was held in high estimation. The beaver trade with the Minquas and the “wild Indians” could be

carried on very briskly at that point, and would“ amount Purchases to thousands” annually. In the course of this year, Corsthe Schuyl- sen succeeded in purchasing, “ for certain cargoes," from

" the right owners and Indian chiefs," a tract of land called “ Armenveruis," lying about and on the Schuylkill. The Indian title being thus secured, formal possession of Pennsylvania was taken by the Dutch, who erected a trading-house there ; and afterward a more considerable post, to which they gave the name of "Fort Beversrede.99*

The Dutch, who were the only Europeans that had thus tieut River. far actually occupied any part of the present territory of

New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, were now to assert, against a pertinacious rival, their right to the possession of Connecticut, which, from the time of Block's exploration, and long “ before any English had dreamed of going there,” they had constantly visited, and where they had carried on an exclusive and lucrative

trade. When the remnant of the Mahicans opposite Fort 1628. Orange, who had been subdued by the Mohawks, were ex

pelled from their ancient abode, they settled themselves on the Fresh River, “called Connittecock by the natives," under the sachem Sequeen, who claimed the aboriginal ownership of “the whole river, and the lands thereabouts.” It was a beautiful flat country, “subject in the spring to

* Hol. Doc. viii., 35, 55; Hudde's Report, in Alb. Rec., xvii., and in ii., N. Y. H. S. Coll., i., 429, 440 ; O'Call., i., 156 ; ii., 81, 581; Hazard, Ann. Penn., 35, 77, 78; De Vries, 102, 103, 104 ; post, p. 483, 485.

Affairs on the Connec

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