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gardus re

18 July

Chap. IX. had it written or made the statement. Consequently, the

director and council could not know the truth of matters, 1638.

as was proper, and as justice demanded."*

If, however, the new director seemed chiefly engrossed

in reforming the civil administration, he did not neglect Domine Bo. the cause of religion. Bogardus, the clergyman at Fort tained at Amsterdam, upon learning the charges which Van Dincksterdam. lagen, after his return to Holland, had laid before the

Classis of Amsterdam, petitioned Kieft for leave to return to the Fatherland and defend himself. But the director and council resolved “to retain the minister here, that the increase of God's word may in no manner be prevented." The Consistory of the Church, however, earnestly defended and justified their conduct in 1636; and Kieft himself seems to have supported their prayer, that the Classis would “ be pleased to look into their case with care, and to decide the same against Lubbertus van Dincklagen, for the protection of the reputation of their esteemed preacher Domine Everardus Bogardus.”+

In spite of Kieft's proclamations, abuses continued. Multifari- The population of New Netherland not having yet become

generally agricultural, was too much disposed to a lax morality, owing partly to the mixed character of the

persons attracted to Manhattan for purposes of trade, and partly to the example which the late director had himself set. Kieft attempted to introduce a more rigid system of police; and fresh proclamations threatened all evil-doers

with fines and penalties. The people were forbidden to Passports. leave Manhattan without passports ; but, in spite of pla

cards, they would go when they pleased. Complaints were frequently made, that private parties were enriching

themselves at the company's expense. All persons were, 18 Nov. therefore, ordered to restore, without delay, every thing in

their possession belonging to the company, unless they could "prove that they bought it from the former director." And criminal prosecutions, and executions for homi

ous population at Manhattan,


* Hol. Dọc., v., 360; ii, N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii, 316, 336. † Alb. Rec., ii., 17; Cor. Cl. Amst., 19th Nov., 1641, 1st Ap., 1642; ante, p. 273.



cide and mutiny, were unhappily too frequent to leave Char. IX. the new director much repose from the cares of his gov.

1638. ernment.*

Though the colony at Rensselaerswyck was steadily Slow prog. prospering, the oppressive trading monopoly of the West riculturai India Company retarded the agricultural settlement of other parts of New Netherland. A few “free colonists," however, from time to time came out from Holland, and established themselves chiefly in the neighborhood of Manhattan. Pavonia, having now become the property of the Pavonia. company, Kieft, in the name of the directors, sold some 1 May. land at Paulus' Hook, east of Ahasimus, to Abraham Isaack Planck, who soon established a flourishing farm upon his purchase; and other tracts in that neighborhood were leased, before long, to respectable emigrants. Near “Corlaer's Hook," on Manhattan Island, a plantation was 20 July bought by Andries Hudde, the “first commissary of Hook. wares;" and La Montagne and others began to make permanent improvements. In the course of the summer, 1 August Kieft also secured for the company the Indian title to a large tract of land upon Long Island, between the East River and the swamps of Mespath, now known as New- Mespath, town; and active husbandmen soon began to occupy the island. fertile regions adjoining the early Waal-bogt.f

Important events had, meanwhile, occurred on the Affairs on southern frontier of New Netherland. After the miscar- River. riage of West's scheme in 1635, and the re-occupation of Fort Nassau, the Dutch had retained the tranquil possession of the South River. Arendt Corssen, whom Van Twiller had appointed commissary there, was succeeded, soon after Kieft's arrival, by Jan Jansen, of Ilpendam, in Jan Jansen North Holland ; and Peter Mey was directed to act as as- commissasistant commissary at Fort Nassau during Jansen's absence. Sir John Harvey, having defeated the intrigues of his enemies in London, returned to Virginia with a

the South



Alb. Rec., G. G., 57; i., 65 ; ii., 33 ; iii., 419. + Hol. Doc., V., 399 ; ii., N. Y. H. S. Cóll., ii., 338; Alb. Rec., i., 16, 55 ; O'Call., i., 185; ii., 581. Lá Montagne's farm, on Manhattan Island, was called Vredendael, or "Peaceful Vale." It was between the Eighth Avenue and Haerlem River.

# Hol. Doc., viii., 32, 51.

12 Feb.

Colonial policy of Sweden

Chap. IX. new royal commission as governor, in which post he re

mained until he was succeeded by Sir Francis Wyatt in 1636. 2 April.

1639.* Harvey's influence, though weakened by the facwie eindry. tions which distracted his administration, was still suffiland.

cient to restrain the Virginians from further invasion of New Netherland; and the Maryland colonists, under Lord Baltimore's tolerant government, were too busily occupied in harmonious efforts for peopling the beautiful shores of the Potomac to think of encroaching upon the adjoining territory of the Hollanders. A friendly intercourse was all that

they desired; and Calvert, under the official seal of the 1638. province, encouraged trade and commerce 66 with the

Dutchmen in Hudson's River.”+ But while English aggression was pausing at the South, fresh annoyance from an unexpected source visited the Batavian possessions.

Sweden was now to become the competitor of France, and England, and Holland for a foothold in North America. The liberal mind of Gustavus Adolphus early discerned the benefits to his people of colonies and an expanded commerce; and William Usselincx, the projector

of the Dutch West India Company, visiting the Baltic, 1626. quickened the zeal of the sagacious sovereign. The plan which Usselincx proposed was adopted by Gustavus,

and confirmed by the Diet. Even while the gallant northern Company. monarch was sweeping Germany with victorious armies,

his views of American colonization became more enlarged; 1632. and at Nuremberg he drew up a recommendation of the 16 October. undertaking as 6 the jewel of his kingdom.” But the fa

tal field of Lützen soon afterward deprived Sweden of her magnanimous sovereign; and the grand enterprise he had so much at heart was suspended for several years. $

On the demise of Gustavus, the crown descended to his daughter Christina, a child of six years of age ; and the states intrusted the government, during her minority, to a regency, at the head of which was the illustrious statesman Axel, count of Oxenstierna. One of the few great

14 June.

West India

3 Nov.

* Harvey's commission is in Rymer's Federa, xx., p. 3 ; Hazard, i., 400; and Wyatt's in Rymer, xx., 484 ; Hazard, i., 477.

† Bozman, ii., 593. # Moulton, 408-411 ; Bancroft, ii., 284; Hazard's Annals of Penn., 16-20, 30.



10 April..

12 Dec.

uit in Swe.

men of all time, the Swedish chancellor viewed the con- Chap. IX. sequences of American colonization as favorable to all Christendom, to Europe, and to the whole world.” He 1633. therefore published the Nuremberg proclamation, which Gustavus had left unsigned ; and the next year, the char- 1634. ter which Oxenstierna proposed for the Swedish West India Company, was confirmed by the deputies of the German circles at Francfort.*

It was more than three years, however, before the scheme was carried into effect; and when it was at length accomplished, it was by the agency of a former officer of the Dutch West India Company. After his recall from Peter MinNew Netherland, Minuit, going to Stockholm, offered to den the regency the benefit of his colonial experience. The counsels of the discarded director won the confidence of the sagacious Oxenstierna; and toward the close of 1637, 1637. Minuit sailed from Gottenburg, with a commission from the infant queen, “ signed by eight of the chief lords of Sweden,” to plant a new colony on the west side of the Delaware Bay. The selection of this region was probably owing to Minuit, who, during his directorship of New Netherland, had become well acquainted with the situation of Swaanendael and the neighboring territories on the South River, and who knew that there was now no European colony there. A man-of-war, “the Key of Cal- Minuit mar,"

" and a tender, “the Griffin,” were fitted out, in which South Rivabout fifty emigrants were embarked, some of whom being " bandits,” were to be employed as galley-slaves in erecting fortifications. The care of the Swedish government added a pious Lutheran clergyman, Reorus Torkillus, and supplied the expedition with provisions, ammunition, and goods for traffic with the natives.

Early in the spring of 1638-about the time that Kieft 1638. anchored at Manhattan—the Swedish expedition put in at Maribor Jamestown, where it remained about ten days, “ to refresh the chesawith wood and water." The treasurer of Virginia, learn

sails for the


Anchors in

* Bancroft, ii., 286; Hazard, Ann. Penn., 34, 39.
+ Hol. Doc., viii., 34 ; Hazard, Ann. Penn., 43-47 ; Holm, 73, 109; Acrelius, 408



CHAP. IX. ing that it was “bound for Delaware Bay, which is the

confines of Virginia and New England," there" to make 1638.

a plantation,” desired to obtain a copy of Minuit's commission." This, however, he declined to furnish, "except he might have free trade for tobacco to carry to Sweden.'' But Governor Harvey “excused himself thereof," as it

was "contrary to his majesty's instructions;" and Minuit, Arrives in pursuing his voyage, reached the Delaware Bay early in ware Bay: April.*

Running up as far as the “ Minquas' Kill,” Minuit purland at the chased, for “a kettle and other trifles," from the Sachem

Mattehoorn, who had his wigwam there, as much land, s included between six trees," as would serve to build a house upon and make a plantation. For this land a deed was given, "written in Low Dutch, as no Swede could yet interpret the Indian.” By this conveyance, the Swedes claimed to have obtained all the territory on the west side of the river, from Cape Hinlopen to the falls at “Santickan," or Trenton, and as far inland "as they might want."

The news of the Swedes' arrival quickly reached the from Fort Dutch at Fort Nassau, about fifteen miles further up the

river; and persons were sent down to demand the reasons of their coming. But Minuit represented that he was only on a voyage to the West Indies, and would leave as soon as he had supplied his ships with wood and water. Revisiting the Minquas' Kill soon afterward, the Dutch officers found that the Swedes “had done more," and had already made a small garden. They inquired “what it meant;" and Minuit again excused himself “ by various reasons and subterfuges." In a few days, the real inten

tions of the Swedes were made apparent. Minuit dis25. April. patched his tender, the Griffin, up the river to trade; but sends his she was stopped at Fort Nassau, and Peter Mey, the asthe river to sistant commissary, going on board, demanded to see her

Visited by the Dutch


tender up


* Murphy's notes on Vertoogh van N. N., in ii., N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 327 ; Letter from Jerome Hawley, Treasurer of Virginia, to Secretary Windebanke, dated 8th of May, 1638, in Lond. Doc., i., 57 ; N. Y. Col. MSS., iii., 20; Hazard, Ann. Penn., 42, 43.

† Hol. Doc., viii., 70; Acrelius, in ii., N. Y. H. S. Coll., 1., 409; Hudde's Report in same vol., p. 439.

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