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Chap. IX. ined that the experiment of opening to free competition

the internal trade of New Netherland should be at once 1638.

attempted. The Amsterdam Chamber accordingly pubThe West lished a notification, that all inhabitants of the United Ladis

. Com Provinces and of friendly countries might freely convey to Lion of free New Netherland, " in the company's ships," any cattle

and merchandise they desired, and might "receive whatever returns they or their agents may be able to obtain in those quarters therefor.” All shipments were to be made by the company's officers; a duty of ten per cent. was to be paid to the company on all merchandise sent from Holland, and a duty of fifteen per cent. on all goods exported from New Netherland; and freight was also to be paid for the conveyance of goods and cattle. The Director and Council of New Netherland were to be instructed to accommodate every emigrant, “ according to his condition and means, with as much land as he and his family can properly cultivate." A quit-rent of a tenth of all the produce was reserved to the company, which would assure legal estates of inheritance to the grantees. In subordination to the States General, the company and its officers were to maintain police and administer justice in New Netherland; and each colonist or trader proceeding thither was to sign a pledge 6 voluntarily to submit to these regulations and to the commands of the company, and allow all questions and differences there arising to be decided by the ordinary course of justice established in that country."*

The more liberal system which the company was thus compelled to adopt, though it fell short of the emergency, was a step in advance, and gave a rapid impulse to the prosperity of New Netherland. Private enterprise and industry were now unshackled ; and an anxiety to emigrate was soon manifested at Amsterdam, which the directors wisely encouraged by offering a free passage, and other substantial inducements to respectable farmers.

Ofects of a Diore liberal policy.

* Hol. Doc., ii., 220, 370 ; O'Call., i., 201-203.
+ Hol. Doc., jii., 96 ; v., 155–157 ; il., N. Y. H. S. Coll., il., 330; O'Call., 1., 200.


25 Sept.

Arrives at

The proclamation was no sooner published, than plans Char. IX. of colonization were formed by persons of capital and in

1638. fluence. De Vries, who had arranged with Van Twiller two years before, for lands on Staten Island, now sailed again isails from the Texel with several emigrants, who had agreed Nether to go out with him and commence a colony. Arriving off land. Sandy Hook in mid-winter, the master of the ship, wanting a pilot, and observing the ground covered with snow, began to talk of returning to the West Indies, and waiting there until summer. He had “old false charts,” only, with him. But some of the passengers, "who had lived several years in New Netherland,” asked De Vries to pilot them in; for they knew that he had formerly “taken his own ship in by night." De Vries assenting, conducted 27 Dec. the vessel safely up to Fort Amsterdam, “where there Manhattan was great joy, because no ship was expected there at that time of the year.” After spending a few days at Kieft's house, where he was cordially welcomed, De Vries sent 1639.

5 January. his people to Staten Island, to build some cabins, and begin a 66 colonie."*

In the course of the following summer, several other persons of substantial means came out from Holland, bringing along with them emigrants and cattle. Among 16 June: them was Jochem Pietersen Kuyter, of Darmstadt, who ter and had formerly been a commander in the East Indies under Melyn arthe King of Denmark. Cornelis Melyn, of Antwerp, also Manhattan came to see the country; which pleased him so well that he soon returned to bring his family out to Manhattan. Both Kuyter and Melyn afterward rose to prominence in their new home.t

The liberal policy which the West India Company had strangers now adopted not only encouraged the emigration of sub- neighborstantial colonists from the Fatherland, but also attracted attracted to strangers from Virginia and New England. Conscience erland. had always been unshackled in New Netherland; and now the internal trade and commerce of the province were made free to all. In Massachusetts, where political fran

Staten Island.

J. P. Kuy


rive at

ing colonies

* De Vries, 148, 149.

+ Hol. Doc., iii., 365 ; De Vries, 151.


of the province.


Chap. IX. chises were limited to members of the Church, “many

men began to inquire after the southern parts;" and it 1639.

was not because the necessaries of life or a healthy climate were wanting, that that colony was "disesteemed of many." Besides seeking relief in Virginia and the West Indies, the dissatisfied began to escape from their “insupportable government,” to find more congenial homes in New Netherland. From Virginia, too, numbers of persons, whose terms of service had expired, were attracted to Manhattan, where they introduced improved modes of cultivating tobacco. Cherry and peach trees, which hitherto

had been seen only near Jamestown, now began to flourProsperity ish around the walls of Fort Amsterdam. Prosperity and

progress replaced dilapidation and ruin. Instead of seven bouweries and two or three plantations," full thirty,

as well stocked with cattle as any in Europe,” were soon under cultivation. The numerous applications for land promised “full one hundred more ;" and there was a prospect that, in two or three years' time, provisions could be furnished for fourteen thousand men.

In view of the increasing demand for homesteads near Khieste pur- Fort Amsterdam, Kieft purchased from the chief of the Long Isl-tribe living near Manhassett, or Schout's Bay, all the lands company. from Rockaway eastward to “Sicktew-hacky,” or Fire

Island Bay; thence northward to Martin Gerritsen’s, or
Cow Bay, and westward along the East River, “to the
Vlaeck's Kill;" and thus secured to the West India Com-

pany the Indian title to nearly all the territory now form3 August. ing the county of Queens. A few months afterward, the Kekesick Indian owners of " Kekesick” appeared at Fort AmsterChester. dam, and ceded to the company all the territory " which

lies over against the flats of the Island of Manhates," adjoining "the great Kill.” This purchase is supposed to have included a part of the present town of Yonkers, in the county of West Chester.f

15 January. lands on

* Hol. Doc., ii., 370, 371 ; iii., 98,99 ; Alb. Rec., i., 109; O'Call., i., 208, 222, 418; Winthrop, i., 331 ; De Vries, 109; Doc. Hist. N. Y., iv., 6.

† Alb. Rec., G. G., 59, 62 ; xxii., 8; O'Call., i., 210 ; ii., 335 ; Thompson's L. I., I., 94 ; Bolton's West Chester, ii., 401.




derhill pro

come under



Among the prominent men in New England whose at- Chap. IX. tention was turned toward New Netherland, was Captain

1639. John Underhill, one of the heroes of the Pequod war, and now Governor of Piscataqua, or Dover. Dissatisfied with John Unhis abode, he applied to Kieft for permission to reside with Poses to a few families under the protection of the Dutch, provid- the Dutch ed they might enjoy all the privileges of the inhabitants of New Netherland. The director and council promptly 8 Sept. granted Underhill's request, upon condition that " he and his adherents take the oath of allegiance to their High Mightinesses the States General, and his highness the Prince of Orange."*

The only obligation required from strangers was an oath Obligations of fidelity and allegiance, similar to that which was im- leges of forposed upon Dutch colonists. The liberal maxims of the New NethFatherland in regard to citizenship were adopted and proclaimed in New Netherland. In no one respect were foreigners' subjected to greater restraints than natives, or excluded from any privilege which Hollanders themselves enjoyed. New Amsterdam was to be as much a city of the world as was old Amsterdam; and the provincial records show how readily the English new-comers bound them- September. selves by oath “to follow the director, or any one of the council, wherever they shall lead ; faithfully to give instant warning of any treason or other detriment to this country that shall come to their knowledge, and to assist to the utmost of their power in defending and protecting with their blood and treasure the inhabitants thereof against all its enemies.”+

Numerous grants of land were soon obtained by the Grants of adopted citizens of New Netherland. Anthony Jansen, eigners. . of Salee, a respectable French Huguenot, entered two hundred acres opposite Coney Island, and began the set

1 August.

* Alb. Rec., ii., 64. Underhill, however, did not come to New Netherland until 1643. In 1642, after undergoing ecclesiastical discipline at Boston, he removed to Stamford ; and the next year entered the military service of the Dutch.-See Winthrop, i., 270, 291, 306, 326 ; ii., 14, 63, 97; and Thompson's L. I., ii., 353-361. In a letter, dated the 28th of June, 1638, Underhill gives an account of the proceedings of the “proud Pharisees" against him, somewhat more circumstantial than Winthrop's statements.

† Alb. Rec., ii., 63.

15 Nov.

Bay ,

Kieft's do mestic ad


CHAP. IX. tlement of Gravesend. Thomas Belcher soon afterward

took up a tract at "Marechkaweick," in what is now Brook1639.

lyn. And George Holmes, the leader of the expedition against Fort Nassau in 1635, who had been carried back to Virginia, returning to Manhattan, in conjunction with Thomas Hall, his former companion, obtained a grant of land, and built a house near " Deutel Bay," a beautiful secluded nook on the East River. *

While every thing was now beginning to wear an air ministra- of progress and improvement around Manhattan, the act

ive director employed himself diligently in reforming the colonial administration. Discipline was enforced among the soldiers, and the company's mechanics and laborers obliged to regulate their working hours by the ringing of the bell. Jacob van Curler and David Provoost were appointed inspectors of the new staple, tobacco. Oloff Stevensen van Cortlandt, who had come out with Kieft from

Holland as a soldier in the service of the company, was 1 July promoted to be commissary of the shop. A change was

also made in the office of schout-fiscal, but not by Kieft's agency. This important post was now conferred, by the

Amsterdam Chamber, upon Cornelis van der Huygens. Huygens Van Dincklagen, whose representations had so materially schout-fis- contributed to the changes introduced into the administra

tion of New Netherland, was neither reinstated nor re13 July ceived into the company's favor. Upon the arrival of

Van der Huygens at Manhattan, Ulrich Lupold, who had acted as schout-fiscal for three years, was immediately appointed commissary of wares by Kieft, who frequently invited his presence at the colonial council board.

Cornelis van der


* Alb. Rec., i., 116 ; ii., 54; O'Call., 1., 208, 211 ; ii., 581 ; Thompson's L. I., ii., 171, 218. Deutel Bay is the small cove on the East River about two miles above Corlaer's Hook, now known as “ Turtle Bay." The original name, "Deutel," which the English soon corrupted to "Turtle," signified, according to Fudge Benson (Memoir, p. 96), a peg with which casks were “gedeutelt,” or secured. As these pegs were short, but broad at the base, and as the bay was narrow at its entrance and wide within, the supposed resemblance between it and the peg probably suggested the name of “Deutel."

† Alb. Rec., il., 57, 61, 83, 99, 132; O’Call., 1., 211, 228; Hol. Doc., 398 ; ii., N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 299, 337. Van Cortlandt left the company's service in 1648, and afterward became prominent in colonial affairs. Notices of his descendants, who form one of the most respectable families in the state, may be found in O'Call., i., 212; and in Bolton's West Chester, i., 51.

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