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9 May.

The Iroquois sup

Ceap. IX. Finding this the cause of much complaint, Kieft issued a

proclamation, requiring all the inhabitants whose land ad1640.

joined that of the Indians to inclose their farms, so as to prevent trespasses upon the red men. The evil, however, continued; and the Indians avenged themselves by “killing the cattle, and even the horses," of the Dutch.*

The most unhappy result of all was the supplying of plied with the savages with new weapons of offense. The Iroquois

warriors, from the day they first recoiled before the arquebuses of Champlain, dreaded the superiority of the Europeans. At first they considered a gun " the Devil," and would not touch it. But the moment they became accustomed to their use, they were eager to possess the firearms of Europe. No merchandise was so valuable to them. For a musket they would willingly give twenty beaver skins. For a pound of powder they were glad to barter the value of ten or twelve guilders. Knowing the impolicy of arming the savages, the West India Company, in wise sympathy with the English government, had declared contraband the trade in fire-arms; and had even forbidden the supply of munitions of war to the New Netherland Indians, under penalty of death. But the last of large gains quickly overcame prudence. The extraordinary profits of the traffic early became generally known; and the colonists of Rensselaerswyck and “free traders?? from Holland soon bartered away to the Mohawks enough guns, and powder, and bullets for four hundred warriors. In the neighborhood of Manhattan, where a more rigid po

lice was maintained, the supply of arms was prevented. The river. This, however, only excited the hatred of the river tribes

against the Dutch ; for the Iroquois, in full consciousness of their renovated power, now not only carried open war into their enemies' country along the Saint Lawrence and the Great Lakes, but, more haughtily than ever, exacted the tribute which they claimed from the subjugated tribes between the Mohawk and the sea.

Indians of tonded.

* Journal van N. N., in Hol. Doc., iii., 97–102; Alb. Rec., ii., 81.

+ Journal of N. N., in Hol. Doc., iii., 103 ; Report, in Hol. Doc., ii., 368; O'Call., d., 224, 419 ; De Vries, 158 ; Doc. Hist. N. Y., iv., 5, 6, 7, 8.



more exact

66 The Kieft antie

While the river Indians were brooding over what they Chap. IX. thought the unjust partiality of the Dutch toward the Ir

1640, oquois, a new provocation was added to the existing an- The Innoyance. Kieft, alleging express orders” from Hol- dians near land, unwisely determined to exact the contribution of become corn, furs, and wampum from the savages in the neigh-perated. borhood of Fort Amsterdam, which he had resolved upon the previous autumn. The directors of the Amsterdam Chamber afterward positively denied that they had ever authorized the measure, or even knew that the contribution had been exacted.* But the mischief was already done.

The river Indians were now totally estranged. Hollanders," said the irritated savages, "are Materiotty- rupture. men of blood : though they may be something on the water, they are nothing on the land : they have no great sachem or chief.”. Perceiving the temper of the Indians in the Dutch his neighborhood, Kieft, in apprehension of a sudden at-arm themtack, ordered all the residents of Manhattan to provide 10 May. themselves with arms; and, at the firing of three guns, to repair, under their respective officers, " to the place appointed,” properly equipped for service.

But without waiting to be attacked, the imprudent director soon found an opportunity to become the aggressor. It happened that some persons in the company's service, The Rarion their way to the South River, landed at Staten Island ed with exfor wood and water; and, on re-embarking, stole some Staten Ielswine belonging to De Vries and to the company, which had been left there in charge of a negro. The blame was thrown on the innocent Raritan Indians, who lived about twenty miles inland. These savages were also accused of having attacked the yacht Vrede, which had been sent among them to trade for furs. No lives were lost, though the Indians made off with the trading party's canoe.t

Kieft rashly resolved to punish the alleged offenders


* Alb. Rec., ii., 65, 81 ; Vertoogh van N. N., 289, 300; ante, p. 293 ; Hol. Doc., V., 30. + Alb. Rec., ii., 82; Journal van N. N., in Hol. Doc., iii., 104; Doc. Hist. N. Y., iv., 8. $ De Vries, 161, 163


Chap. IX. with admonitory severity. Van Tienhoven, the provincial

secretary, was commissioned to lead a party of fifty sol1640. 16 July

diers and twenty sailors to attack the Indians and destroy Expedition their corn, unless they should make prompt reparation. against the When he reached his destination, Van Tienhoven demand

ed satisfaction; but his men, knowing the director's temper, wished to kill and plunder at once. This Van Tienhoven refused to permit; but at last, vexed with their importunity, he left the party, protesting against their disobedience. Several of the Indians were killed ; their crops were destroyed; and “such tyranny was perpetrated" by the company's servants, that there was now little hope of regaining the friendship of the savages.*

Thus was laid the foundation of a bloody war, which, before long, desolated New Netherland, whose provincial government had now read to the Raritans the lessons which, four years before, Massachusetts had read to the Block Island Indians. Determined to pursue liis policy

of levying contributions on the river tribes, Kieft soon aft20 October. erward sent sloops up to Tappan; but the savages de tion levied murred against the novel tribute. " They wondered how

the sachem at the fort dared to exact such things from them." “He must be a very shabby fellow; he had come to live in their land when they had not invited him,

and now came to deprive them of their corn for nothing." T'he sav. They refused to pay the contribution, because the soldiers

in Fort Amsterdam were no protection to the savages, who should not be called upon for their support; because they had allowed the Dutch to live peaceably in their country, and had never demanded recompense; because when the Hollanders, "having lost a ship there, had built a new one, they had supplied them with victuals and all other necessaries, and had taken care of them for two winters, until the ship was finished," and therefore the Dutch were under obligations to them; because they had paid full price for every thing they had purchased, and there was,


on the Tappons.

ages refuse

to pay .

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* De Vries, 161, Alb. Rec., i., 263 ; ii., 95 ; Hol. Doc., iii., 165 ; V., 314; O'Call., i., 227, + De Vrios, 162.

The Corn


ter for pa

therefore, no reason why they should supply the Holland- Chap. IX. ers now " with maize for nothing;" and, finally, said the

1640. savages, because, “if we have ceded to you the country you are living in, we yet remain masters of what we have retained for ourselves."*

In the mean time, the States General had instructed 13 March. their deputies to the College of the XIX. to aid in recon- pany's dir ciling the differences between the patroons and the com- arrangod. pany, and devise some plan by which the colonization of the province might be promoted, and its inhabitants put "in the best condition.” The company accordingly agreed upon a new charter of “Freedoms and Exemptions" for all patroons, masters, and private persons, which was sent 19 July. to the Hague, and promptly approved.

The new charter amended materially the obnoxious in- New charstrument of 1629. “ All good inhabitants of the Nether- troons. lands" were now allowed to select lands and form colonies, which, however, were to be reduced in size. Instead of four Dutch miles, they were limited to one mile along the shore of a bay or navigable river, and two miles into the country. A free right of way by land and water was reserved to all; and, in case of dispute, the director general of New Netherland was to decide. The feudal privileges of erecting towns and appointing their officers; the high, middle, and lower jurisdiction; and the exclusive right of hunting, fishing, fowling, and grinding corn, were continued to the patroons as an estate of inheritance, with descent to females as well as males. On every such change of ownership, the company was to receive a pair of iron gauntlets and twenty guilders, within one year.

Besides the patroons, another class of proprietors was Heads of now established. Whoever should convey to New Netherland five grown persons besides himself, was to be recognized as a "master or colonist;" and could occupy two hundred acres of land, with the privilege of hunting and fishing. If settlements of such colonists should increase in numbers, towns and villages might be formed, to which


* Breeden Raedt, 14, 15.


leges extended,

Chap. IX. municipal governments were promised. The magistrates

in such towns were to be selected by the director and 1640.

council, “from a triple nomination of the best qualified in the said towns and villages.”. From these courts, and from the courts of the patroons, an appeal might lie to the director and council at Manhattan. The company guaranteed protection, in case of war, to all the colonists; but each adult male emigrant was bound to provide himself, before he left Holland, with a proper musket, or a hanger and side arms.

The commercial privileges, which the first charter had cial privi

restricted to the patroons, were now extended to all“ free
colonists," and to all the stockholders in the company.
Nevertheless, the company adhered to a system of onerous
imposts, for its own benefit; and required a duty of ten per
cent. on all goods shipped to New Netherland, and of five
per cent. on all return cargoes, excepting peltries, which
were to pay ten per cent. to the director at Manhattan be-
fore they could be exported. All shipments from New
Netherland were to be landed at the company's ware-
houses in Holland. The prohibition of manufactures
within the province was, however, abolished. The com-
pany renewed its pledge to send over “ as many blacks
as possible ;” and disclaiming any interference with the
"high, middle, and lower jurisdiction" of the patroons, re-
served to itself supreme and sovereign authority over New
Netherland, promising to appoint and support competent
officers " for the protection of the good, and the punish-
ment of the wicked.” The provincial director and coun-
cil were to decide all questions respecting the rights of the
company, and all complaints, whether by foreigners or in-
habitants of the province; to act as an Orphan's and Sur-
rogate's Court; to judge in criminal and religious affairs,

and generally to administer law and justice. No other church too religion “save that then taught and exercised by authorious wority, in the Reformed Church in the United Provinces," province.

was to be publicly sanctioned in New Netherland, where

The Reformed Dutch


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