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Chap. IX. and that the director should make the necessary prepara

tions, and especially procure a sufficient number of coats 1641.

of mail " for the soldiers, as well as for the freemen, who are willing to pay their share in these expenses.” Trade and intercourse with the savages should, nevertheless, be temporarily maintained, and no hostile measure be attempted by any one, "of whatever state or condition," except against the murderer himself, until the hunting sea

Then it would be proper to send out two parties, the one to land near the “ Archipelago," or Norwalk Islands, and the other at Weckquaesgeek, " to surprise them from both sides." As the director was commander of the soldiery as well as governor, he "ought to lead the van;" while the community offered their persons "to follow his steps and obey his commands." Yet they humanely added, "we deem it advisable that the director send further, once, twice, yea, for the third time, a shallop, to demand the surrender of the murderer in a friendly manner, to punish him according to his deserts."*

To these official answers of the Twelve Men De Vries, counsels. who keenly felt his double losses at Swaanendael and

Staten Island, added his own opinion. The Dutch were all scattered about the country, and their cattle running wild in the woods. 66 It would not be advisable to attack the Indians until we had more people, like the English, who had built towns and villages." Besides, the directors of the Amsterdam Chamber were resolutely opposed to war; for when applied to for permission to commence hostilities against the South River Indians, who had destroyed Swaanendael, they had replied, "you must keep at peace with the savages.

But Kieft 6 did not wish to listen.”

At length the hunting season came; and Kieft, impatient to attack the Weckquaesgeeks, was even more anxious to secure the concurrence of the Twelve Men. To accomplish his favorite design, he now asked them, separately, for their opinions on the question of immediate hosti).

De Vries's pacific

Kieft urges


1 Nov.

* Alb. Rec., il., 136, 137; Hol. Doc., V., 326–329.

+ De Vries, 165.


pose hostil

Swedes on


ities. Had he convened them in a body, he suspected, and Chap. IX. with reason, that the popular delegates would hardly con

1641. tent themselves with answering his queries; they would very probably turn their attention to the condition of the provincial government. But the impatient director was again foiled. The separate opinions of a majority of the The Twelve Men were for procrastination. The savages were Men opstill too much on their guard : it was better, at all events, ities. to await the arrival of the next vessel from the Fatherland. De Vries, the president, was decidedly opposed to hostilities with the Indians under any circumstances.* For a time longer war was averted.

The Swedes had, meanwhile, continued in quiet pos- The session of Fort Christina, on the South River. The first the South year after their settlement they prospered abundantly, and did “about thirty thousand florins' injury” to the trade of the Hollanders. During the second winter of their residence, however, receiving no succors from home, they were reduced to great extremities, and so much discour- 1640. aged, that the next spring they resolved" to break up, and come to Manhattan.”?4 But unexpected relief was at hand.

The fame of the pleasant valley of the South River, which had now reached Scandinavia, began also to spread through the United Provinces; and several prominent Hollanders, in apparent disregard of the claims of their own West India Company, undertook to send out emigrants there, under the authority of the Swedish government. A letter, signed by Oxenstierna and his colleagues, was ac- 24 January cordingly obtained by Van der Horst and others, of Utrecht, ish govern declaring that they were permitted “to establish them-courage selves on the north side of the South River, and there to from liolfound a colony ;” and a passport was also issued in favor South Rivof the ship Fredenburg, commanded by Jacob Powelson, who was about departing from Holland with colonists for New Sweden. Van der Horst, however, upon further consideration, apparently preferring to avail himself of the



land to the


* Alb. Rec., ii., 140, 141; ii., N. Y. H.S. Coll., i., 278.

Hol. Doc., yiii., 50, 52, 53; S Hazard, Ann. Penn., V., 45, 50, 56.

Hockhammer's grant.




Chap. IX. new charter for patroons, did not accept the Swedish grant,

which was, therefore, transferred to Henry Hockhammer. 1640.

It authorized him and his associates to send out vessels, cattle, and colonists from Holland under the royal protection, and to take up as much land on both sides of the South River as should be necessary for their purposes, provided it be 56 at least four to five German miles from Fort Christina." The exercise of the Reformed religion of Hol

land was guaranteed, and the support of ministers and 30 January. schoolmasters enjoined. Joost de Bogaerdt was appointgaerdt com- ed special commandant of the new colony, at an annual

salary from the Swedish government of five hundred florins, or two hundred rix dollars, 6 to be remitted to his banker in Holland” by the Swedish resident at the Hague.*

Powelson reached the Delaware early in the spring. His Swedes en- arrival gladdened the desponding Swedes, who had de

termined to abandon Fort Christina the next day. The new colonists from Holland were soon settled a few miles south of the fort, under the superintendence of De Bogaerdt. Traffic with the Indians was now prosecuted with vigor, and the Dutch West India Company's trade

on the South River was entirely ruined.” In the follow15 October. ing autumn, Kieft wrote from Manhattan to the Amster

dam Chamber, informing them of the “re-enforcement of people” which the Swedes had received the previous spring, "otherwise it had been arranged for them to come here;" but stating his intention to treat them “ with every politeness, although they commenced, with many hostilities, forcibly to build, attack our fort, trading, and threatening to take our boats.''

The same autumn, Peter Hollændare arrived from Gottenburg, at Fort Christina, as deputy governor of New Sweden, bringing a number of fresh colonists and the promised supplies. Mounce Kling, who had formerly acted as deputy to Minuit, followed soon afterward with two vessels. The Swedes now purchased additional lands

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Peter Hol-


* Swedish Documents, in Hazard's Reg. of Penn., iv., 177; S. Hazard's Ann. Penn., 51-56.
+ Hol. Doc., viii., 53, 54 ; S. Hazard, Ann. Penn., 56, 57 ; Acrelius, 411; Ferris, 52–54

ven proplantation

South Riv


from the Indians; and, in token of the sovereignty of Chap. IX. their queen, set up the arms and crown of Sweedland."

1641. The next year, it is said, that Peter Minuit died at his deathtot post, and was buried at Fort Christina, which he had Minuit,

protected during three years.” . On his death, Hollændare, the deputy governor, succeeded to the command, " who, after one year and a half, returned to Sweden, and obtained a military post there.'*

The enterprising men of Connecticut were now hoping New Hato obtain a foothold on the Delaware, which, hitherto, had poses a been occupied exclusively by the Dutch and the Swedes. On the Sometime during the year 1640, Captain Nathaniel Turn-er. er, as the agent of New Haven, is said to have made a large purchase of lands “ on both sides of Delaware Bay or River.” In the following spring, a 66 bark or ketch” Lambertos was fitted out at New Haven by George Lamberton, a well's exprincipal merchant there, and dispatched to the Delaware, under the command of Robert Cogswell. When the vessel reached Manhattan, Kieft learning her destination, and warned by his experience with the Hartford people, instantly protested against the enterprise ; and notified the 8 April, New England adventurers not to “ build nor plant upon Manhattan. the South River, lying within the limits of New Netherland, nor on the lands extending along there," unless they would agree to settle themselves under the States General and the West India Company, and swear allegiance to them. But upon Cogswell's assurance that they did not intend to intrude upon any territory over which the States General had authority; and that if they found no land free from claims, they would either peaceably return, or else settle themselves in allegiance to the Dutch government, the New Haven bark was allowed to proceed.t proceed.

Aided by a refugee Pequod sachem, the New Haven adventurers succeeded in purchasing from the Indians “ what land they desired" on both sides of the South Riv

Stopped at

Allowed to

* Acrelius, in N. Y. H. S. Coll., il., 410; Ferris, 57 ; O'Call., i., 366 ; Mulford, 83 ; S. Hazard's Ann. Penn., 57, 59, 60 ; ante, p. 284, note.

+ Hol. Doc., ix., 205; Hazard, ii., 213, 265 ; Trumbull, i., 119; O'Call., i., 231 ; S. Hazard, Ann. Penn., 58.




Kill and the

Vexatious conduct of

Cuar. IX. er. Trading-houses were immediately commenced at the

Varkens' Kill, near Salem in New Jersey, and also “ 1641.

the Schuylkill," where about twenty English families setat. Varkens' tled themselves. The same summer, the General Court Schuylkill. of New Haven resolved that the plantations in Delaware

Bay should be considered “in combination with this town;" and Turner was formally authorized to go there, “for his own advantage and the public good, in settling the affairs thereof."*

While adventurers from New Haven were thus intrudthe Hart- ing within southern New Netherland, the English colo15 April nists at Hartford were pertinaciously vexing the Dutch,

and endeavoring, by petty annoyances around Fort Good Hope, to drive them out of the valley of the Connecticut. “Will ye three resist the whole English village ?” cried the assailants, as the Holland plowmen sturdily endeavored to maintain their rights. An appeal to Governor Hopkins brought no redress. Upon receiving intelligence

of these new provocations, Kieft ordered a force of fifty Deedings.©men to be dispatched, in two yachts, to Fort Good Hope,

under the command of La Montagne. “But," wrote Winthrop, “it pleased the Lord to disappoint the purpose" of the Dutch; for the Staten Island Indians just then suddenly attacking De Vries's plantation, the New Netherland authorities 66

were forced to keep their soldiers at The Hart- home to defend themselves.” The Hartford people, howrefer their ever, thought it prudent to lay a statement of their case Nassachu- before the government of Massachusetts, "for advice about

the difference between them and the Dutch.” Bellingham, by direction of the General Court, accordingly "returned answer, without determining of either side, but advising to a moderate way, as the yielding some more land to the Dutch house--for they had left them but thirty acres.”+ Thus Massachusetts quietly reproved the cupidity of Connecticut.

6 June. Kieft's pro

ford people

21 June.


* S. Hazard, Ann. Penn , 59; Winthrop, il., 62, 76 ; Ferris, 59 ; Mulford, 71.

Hol. Doc., ix., 199-203; Alb. Rec., ii., 123 ; Winthrop, ii., 32 ; Hazard, ii., 264, 265 ; 1., N. Y. H. S. Coll., 274, 275.

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