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Difficulties with the

the East.

the Paugussett.

Kieft pro

CHAP. XII. South River. Angry recriminations alone marked their

progress; for the bankrupt authorities at Manhattan were 1646.

in no position to repel distant encroachments. And thus the purchase and occupation of the site of Philadelphia by the Dutch was the occasion of unseemly wrangles between the rival European colonists who first settled themselves on the banks of the Delaware.

While the Swedes were thus thwarting the Dutch on English at the South River, the attention of the government at Fort

Amsterdam was awakened to fresh annoyances from the
English at the East. The post which Pynchon had estab-

lished at Springfield effectually commanded the upper valNew Ha- ley of the Connecticut. Some of the New Haven people ing-post on now purchased a tract of land from the Indians, and built

a trading-house on the Paugussett or Naugatuck River, just above its confluence with the Housatonic. This

brought the English settlements within a short distance 3 August. of Magdalen Island, on the North River.* On learning

this, Kieft dispatched Lieutenant George Baxter, with a encroach- letter in Latin to Governor Eaton, complaining of the

" insatiable desire" of New Haven to usurp Dutch territory and possess that which is ours." Against Eaton himself and his people he protested, as disturbers of the public quiet, " because you and yours have of late determined to fasten your foot near the Mauritius River, in this province;" and he threatened that, if the English did not make proper reparation, the Dutch would use all the means God had given them to recover their rights.

In a few days, Eaton replied in Latin, professing to

know no such river as the Mauritius, “ unless it be that territory by which the English have long and still do call Hudson's

River," and denying that they had in any respect injured the Dutch. They had built, he admitted, a small house within their own territory, which they had purchased from the Indians on Paugussett River, which falls into the sea in the midst of the English plantations, many miles, nay, leagues from the Manhattoes, from the Dutch trading.




August. 2 Eaton claims the

from the savages.

* ii., N. Y. Coll., ii., p. 273; O'Call., 1., 376; ante, p. 54, note, 261.


South Riv. er.

meet at


Letter lo

house, or from any port on Hudson's river.” And then, Chap. XII. adroitly recriminating, he alluded to the injuries which

1646. the Dutch had done the people of New Haven, at the South River and at Manhattan, and offered to refer the whole again of the case to arbitration, “either here or in Europe," being well the Dutch assured that the king and Parliament would maintain their own rights, and that even Kieft's own superiors would 66

approve the righteousness” of the proceedings of New Haven.*

The next month the Commissioners of the United Colo- September. nies met at New Haven, and within the claimed limits of missioners New Netherland. Taking advantage of the occasion, the New HaHartford people laid before them their story of the wrongs which David Provoost, the commissary at Fort Good Hope, had committed against them. The commissioners - Sept. “thought fit to express their apprehensions in writing," Kiert. and accordingly sent a letter in Latin to Kieft, complaining that the Dutch agent and his company at Hartford

now grown to a strange and insufferable boldness." An Indian captive, who had fled from her English master, was “entertained" at the Fort Good Hope ; and, though required by the magistrate, was detained by the Dutch. “Such a servant," urged the commissioners, “is part of her master's estate, and a more considerable part than a beast.”When the watch at Hartford” was sent to reclaim the slave, Provoost drew and broke his rapier upon their weapons, and then retired within the fort. 66 Had he been slain in this proud affront, his blood had been upon his own head."

Lieutenant Godfrey, who was dispatched to Fort Am- 22 Sept. sterdam with this letter, returned in a few days with wise reply. Kieft's reply in Latin, addressed to the “ Commissioners

had 66

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* Hazard, ii., 55, 56.

# It appears to have been the practice in the Puritan colonies to enslave and sell into foreign bondage the natives of North America.--Winthrop, i., 234, 254; Bancroft, i., 168, 169 ; ante, p. 272. Winthrop himself bequeathed to his son his “Indians," at his island "s called Governor's Garden."-Winthrop, ii., App., 360. The Massachusetts code of 1641 expressly sanctioned the holding in bond slavery of“lawful captives taken in just wars," and such "as willingly sell themselves, or are sold to us," several years before the example was followed by Virginia or Maryland.--Colony Charters and Laws, xii., 52, 53 ; Hildreth, i., 278.


at New Ha

Chap. XII. of the Federated English, met together at the Red Mount,

or New Haven, in New Netherland." The Hartford peo1646.

ple, he insisted, had deceived the commissioners with false accusations; the wrongs were committed on their side; their usurpation of Dutch jurisdiction, and shedding of blood, and seizure of cattle, "do sufficiently testify the equity of their proceedings.” As to the 6 barbarian handmaid," detained at Fort Good Hope, she was probably not a slave, but a free woman,“ because she was neither taken in war nor bought with price." Yet she should not be “wrongfully detained.” For the English at Hartford to complain of the Dutch at Fort Good Hope, was like "Esop's wolf complaining of the lamb." The answer of the New Haven people was what might have been expected; yet the Dutch would still pursue their own rights by

just means. “ We protest," concluded Kieft, "against meeting of all you commissioners met at the Red Mount, as against missioners breakers of the common league, and also infringers of the

special right of the Lords the States our superiors, in that ye have dared, without express commission, to hold your general meeting within the limits of New Netherland."

The commissioners immediately declared themselves 6much unsatisfied" with Kieft's letter. The Indian maid, they insisted, was a slave, captured in war, who had fled from public justice, and was detained by the Dutch, "both from her master and the magistrate." The conduct of the Dutch, in this and other respects, the commissioners conceived, fully warranted their use of the offensive term "unsufferable disorders.” Kieft could hardly prove that the Hartford Confederates had deceived them by false complaints ; and " for your other expressions, proverbs, or allusions, we leave them to your better consideration." “We have more cause to protest against your protestations,” added the commissioners, “than you have to be offended at our boldness in meeting at New Haven, and, for aught we know, may show as good commission for the one as you for the other.'*


Sept. 28 Rejoinder


* Hazard, ii., 57, 58, 68-72 ; i., N. Y. Hist. Coll., 1., 189-199; Trumbull's Conn., i,



ber to op

This quiet dispatch closed the correspondence between Chap. XII. the Director of New Netherland and the colonial authori

1646. ties of New England, whose long altercations "had no dignity, because they were followed by no result."* While justice and equity appeared to be on the side of the Hollanders, the English negotiators showed themselves the best diplomatists; and the reckless Kieft only injured a good cause by intemperate zeal and undignified language.

Kieft promptly sent an account of the fresh encroach- 22 Nov. ment of New Haven to the Amsterdam Chamber. The tions of tho directors, in reply, instructed him to obtain authentic in- dam Chamformation respecting the assumed right of the Indians to pose the de sell to the English any lands within the Dutch limits, in English. the direction of Fort Orange; to prevent the erection of any more English trading-houses in that quarter by all possible measures short of those likely to provoke actual war; and to watch with vigilance, and oppose with vigor, all further movements of those grasping neighbors, who now seemed bent on appropriating to themselves the whole of New Netherland. Referring to the discovery of mines Exploraon Staten Island, and in the Raritan country, they also in- mines to be timated that it was their purpose to send out proper per- aged. sons to examine and report, and to continue explorations which they hoped would be advantageous to the com



Kieft's disastrous administration was now drawing near its end. The differences among the several Chambers of the West India Company, which had so long delayed the 13 July departure of their new director from Holland, were now pany app: so far arranged, that in the summer of 1646 an applica- States Gention was made to the general government for the ratifica- fy stuyve tion of Stuyvesant's commission. But the statesmen at mission.

sant's com

155-158; Winthrop, ii., 268. Kieft having written to Winthrop, complaining of Whiting,
a magistrate of Hartford, “ for saying that the English were fools in suffering the Dutch
in the centre,” &c., the letter was referred to the commissioners, who wrote to the direct-
or that they wished "all such provoking and threatening language might be forborne on
both parts," as contrary to the peace and neighborly correspondence they desired to pre-
serve between the two nations. Kieft replied, that he would " altogether forget" what
Whiting had said, and added, "that the sun of peace may more clearly shine among us,
I both applaud and desire."
* Bancroft, ii., 283.

+ Alb. Rec., xii., 397, 398 ; O'Call., i., 359, 381.

approved. 26 July

28 July

mission approved.


Chap. XII. the Hague declined to take any action upon the subject

until they knew how the company had disposed of the 1646.

complaints which the commonalty of New Netherland had addressed to the Fatherland, and until they had examined

the instructions for the provincial director and council, The compa- which the company had proposed the year before. These structions were promptly submitted ; and the States General ap

proving their tenor, ordered them to be enrolled in their archives.*

Two days afterward, the draft of Stuyvesant's commissant's com-sion was considered and ratified. By this instrument, the

States General appointed him director over New Netherland and the adjoining places, and also over the islands of Curaçoa, Buenaire, Aruba, and their dependencies. He

" to perform all that concerns his office and duties in accordance with the charter, and with the general and particular instructions herewith given and hereafter to be given to him;" and all the officers and subjects of the United Provinces in those countries were enjoined “to acknowledge respect, and obey the said Peter Stuyvesant as our director.” The same day Stuyvesant appeared in person in the meeting of the States General, and took his oath of office. Immediately afterward, Lubbertus van Dincklagen was sworn, in the same manner, as vice-director and first counselor of New Netherland; and the newly-commissioned officers repaired to Amsterdam to hasten their preparations for embarking.

But the departure of the expedition was still delayed the Texel nearly five months longer. At last, all the preliminary

arrangements were completed ; and Stuyvesant and Van December. Dincklagen, accompanied by Fiscal Van Dyck, Captain

Bryan Newton, an Englishman, who had served under the company several years at Curaçoa, Commissary Adriaen Keyser, and Captain Jelmer Thomas, embarked in four ships at the Texel. Besides these officers and their at

Director and vice-director sworn in. 28 July

Expedition seils from

for New Netherland.

* Hol. Doc., iii., 19, 70, 72, 74, 77, 78, 81.

+ Hol. Doc., iii., 82–89. Stuyvesant was married at Amsterdam to Judith Bayard, tho daughter of a French Protestant refugee.-ii., N. Y. H. S. Coll., 1., 400, 455.

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