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CH. XIV. Fatherland would hardly “deem themselves justifiable” in

executing a provincial sentence. “We would advise you," 1647

added the directors, “ to punish, after due inquiry, all delinquents in the country in which they are condemned.99*

Soon after his inauguration, Stuyvesant addressed courtwith New eous letters to the governors of the neighboring colonies,

announcing his arrival, and expressing his feelings of am25 June. ity. In writing to Winthrop, he distinctly asserted "the

indubiate right" of the Dutch to all the territory between the Connecticut and the Delaware; and suggested an interview for the purpose of arranging all differences. This letter Winthrop immediately communicated to the commissioners then sitting at Boston. Some of the members advised that Stuyvesant's proposition should be accepted, and a "visit at his own home," or a meeting at any of the New England towns, be tendered. But the Connecticut commissioners “ thought otherwise, supposing it would be

more to their advantage to stand upon terms of distance." 17 August. Winthrop, therefore, merely replied that a meeting would

be given “ in proper time and place.” The commissioners on their part also joined in a letter, remonstrating against the “ dangerous liberty” the Dutch traders were in the habit of taking, in selling guns and ammunition not only at Fort Orange, but along the coasts of Long Island Sound; complaining of the high recognitions imposed in New Netherland upon imports and exports, and requesting to be informed of their precise nature, so that the New England merchants "might steer a course accordingly.”+

The colonial duties which the West India Company exNew Neth- acted were injuriously high, and in Stuyvesant himself

they had a faithful agent in executing their system of exclusion and selfishness. An opportunity soon occurred to test the zeal of the new director. Secretary Van Tienho

ven, accidentally visiting New Haven, found lying at anNew Ha- chor an Amsterdam ship, the Saint Beninio, which had

Customs duties in


17 Sept. Dutch ship illegally trading at

been trading there for a month without the license of the * Alb. Rec., iv., 2–5; vii., 85-88, 95; Vertoogh, in ii., N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 275, 322 ;


O‘Call., ii., 46, 47; ante, p. 298, 299.

+ MS. Letters, Alb., i., 1-4; Winthrop, ii., 314 ; Hazard, ii., 97, 98.

West India Company. Meeting the Secretary of New Ch. XIV. Netherland, Westerhouse and Goedenhuysen, two of the

164. owners of the cargo, applied for permission to trade at Manhattan, upon the payment of the usual duties. Van Tienhoven, on his return, reported the circumstances to Stuyvesant, and the desired permit was sent to New Haven. A few days afterward, Goedenhuysen, arriving at Manhattan, informed Stuyvesant that the ship was about to sail from New Haven directly to Virginia ; but he neither produced his manifest, nor offered to pay any duties. The case, which from the first had been an infringement of the charter of the West India Company, now assumed the aspect of an open violation of the colonial revenue laws; and Stuyvesant determined to seize the ship as she lay at anchor in New Haven harbor, which he considered to be within the jurisdiction of New Netherland. A short time before he had sold one of the company's vessels to some merchants of New Haven, and agreed to deliver it to them at that place. On board this vessel he embarked a com- Seized by pany of soldiers, with instructions to capture the Saint sanr, and Beninio. The stratagem was successful. The smuggler Manhattan. was seized in New Haven harbor, “on the Lord's day,” 11 October. and with a fair wind was soon brought to Manhattan, and confiscated.*

This bold movement, which was executed so adroitly Excitethat the New Haven people had no time to interfere, nat- New Haurally produced a great excitement there. Stuyvesant had accompanied his proceeding with a letter to the New Haven authorities, in which he claimed all the regions from Cape Hinlopen to Cape Cod as a part of the territory of New Netherland, and asserted his right to levy duties upon all Dutch vessels trading at New Haven. Eaton immediately protested against the Dutch director as a dis- 18 October. turber of the peace, by making unjust claims to our lands and plantations, to our havens and rivers, and by taking a ship out of our harbor without our license." Another cause of embarrassment had meanwhile occurred.

ment at


* Alb. Rec., iii., 315; vii., 70-79, 95-102; Winthrop, ii., 314 ; Hazard, ii., 101-103.


15 Nov.

Ca. XIV. Three of the West India Company's servants had fled from

Manhattan to New Haven, where," being pursued,” they 1647. Retaliatory were apprehended and imprisoned. The provision in the measures. Articles of Union between the New England colonies of

1643, for the mutual delivery of fugitives from justice or servitude, had been virtually extended to New Netherland,* and Eaton had agreed to surrender the prisoners. But as Stuyvesant now so boldly asserted a claim of jurisdiction over New Haven, the delivery of the fugitives might be interpreted “as done in a way of subordination,"

and it was therefore "not thought fit to send them.” This Advice of decision was communicated to the Massachusetts govern

ment, and their advice requested. The General Court wrote at once to the New Haven authorities, that they

might deliver the fugitives without prejudice to their right or reputation.” Eaton, however, rejecting the advice of Massachusetts, detained the runaways, and took them into the public service. The Commissary of Fort . Amsterdam arrived soon afterward at New Haven, with a letter from Stuyvesant, justifying his seizure of the ship, and entreating that the fugitives might be delivered to

him. But Eaton declined, and sent back a sharp reply. ter to Stuy“ You have imposed an excessive high custom for all goods

sold within your jurisdiction, with seizures for omissions or misentries; our vessels must anchor under your erected hand, a place very inconvenient; and, as if you meant to shut up the passage by the Manhattans, or by insufferable burthens to weary the English out of trade, you begin to take recognitions upon goods traded elsewhere, and in their return passing only by the Manhattans.” The post on the Paugussett had been threatened by the Dutch, and slanders against the English had been circulated among the savages. “I doubt not but we may retaliate," added Eaton, who, referring to the "sending Captain ForTester to Holland," suggested, in closing his letter, that the English colonies might hereafter have occasion to write after the same copy.”

25 Nov. Eaton's let



* Hol. Doc., V., 360 ; il., N. Y. H. S. Coll., il., 335.

16 Dec,

sant's vindication.


Indignant at Eaton's "unjust charges,” Stuyvesant de- CH. XIV. clined replying to his lecturing letter, but sent a full vin

1647. dication of his own conduct and administration to Goodyear, the deputy governor of New Haven. Eaton's letter Stuyve

s but as an aggravating of former passages to the worst sense,” said the irritated director; “ripping up, as he conceives, all my faults, as if I were a school-boy, and not one of like degree with himself.'

With regard to the recognitions exacted at Manhattan, "every state hath power to make what laws and impose what customs in its own precincts it shall think convenient, without being regulated or prescribed by others; yet, notwithstanding we have been so favorable to your countrymen trading here that they pay eight per cent. less than our own." As Eaton was "so full of his retaliation, he must, according to his own words and practice, give us leave to give liberty to any that shall elope from your jurisdiction to remain under our protection until our fugitives are delivered."*

The threatened measure was promptly executed. A 5 Dec proclamation was issued, reciting the provocations which sant's rethe director had received from Eaton, and declaring that proceed “ if any person, noble or ignoble, freeman or slave, debtor ings. or creditor, yea, to the lowest prisoner included, run away from the colony of New Haven, or seek refuge in our limits, he shall remain free, under our protection, on taking the oath of allegiance.”+

This unwise step placed Stuyvesant in a false position, both at home and abroad. The New Netherland colonists objected to it as tending to convert the province into a refuge for vagabonds from the neighboring English settlements, who would not be a desirable addition to their

population. This view, however, did not impress the director as strongly as the apprehension that his proclamation might 66 embitter” the other English colonies against the Dutch. He therefore wrote to the governors of Massachusetts and Virginia, “ blaming the practice in general, but excusing it in this particular case” as a measure of neces

Stuyvesant Letters, Alb., i., 4-9.

† Alb. Rec., iv., 18; vii., 111, 112.



28 Sept.


3 April.

CH. XIV. sity, and which had reference to New Haven alone. The

following spring, finding that his unwise policy produced 1648.

no good result, "he wrote privately to the fugitives,” offering them pardon and satisfaction if they would return to New Amsterdam. Stuyvesant's offer, backed by letters from Domine Backerus, was gladly embraced, and the runaways 66 made an escape and returned home." Eaton being thus signally foiled, the obnoxious proclamation was

revoked.* 1647. Almost as soon as Stuyvesant landed at Manhattan, he

was informed of the injurious behavior of Printz, and a South Riv- courier was promptly dispatched to the South River with 17 August. a protest against the Swedish governor. Soon afterward,

the director and council “having considered the abilities appointed of Andries Hudde," confirmed him in office as commissary

at Fort Nassau. In the beginning of the next year, a 1648. Swedish bark, going up the river, passed the Dutch post Insults of without stopping or displaying her colors, was fired at,

and, on returning, her master was required to explain his conduct. But the schipper only boasted that he acted so

to insult the Dutch commander, and would certainly do 4 April

so in future.” Some of the Passayunk sachems now came to Fort Nassau with intelligence that the Swedes had collected a great quantity of logs for a new fort on the Schuylkill, where they had already constructed some buildings. By this means they hoped to cut off the Dutch from all access to the large woods," and secure to themselves a

trade with the Minquas, which would yield some thirty or The sav. forty thousand beaver skins annually. “Why do you not the Duteti build on the Schuylkill yourselves ?" demanded the sathe Schuyl- chems; and Hudde, feeling that without the trade with

the inland Minquas, the possession of the South River " would deserve very little consideration,” determined to follow the suggestion of the friendly savages.

Preparations were immediately made to build, and 27 April. Hudde went to the Schuylkill " with the most necessary




* Winthrop, ii., 315; Hol. Doc., V., 18, 43 ; O'Call., ii., 48–57; Vertoogh, in ii., N. Y. H. S. Coll., ii., 312, 335.

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