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Rising at

31 May. 1 June.

tions, determined at all hazards to possess himself of Fort CH. XVII. Casimir. Gerrit Bikker, the commandant of the Dutch

1654. fort, perceiving a strange sail in the offing, sent Adriaen van Tienhoven with a small party "to investigate." The the South next day the messengers returned with news that it was a Swedish ship full of people, with a new governor, and that they wanted to have possession of this place and the fort, as they said it was lying on the Swedish government's land." The Dutch residents called on Bikker to defend the fort; but the commander only replied, "What can I do?-there is no powder.” An hour afterward, a boat from the Swedish ship landed twenty or thirty soldiers, headed by Swen Schute. Bikker received them civ. illy on the beach, and " bade them welcome as friends." But the Swedes, finding the gate open, hurried into the fort, and made themselves masters of the place. Van Tienhoven and another commissioner were, however, allowed to go on board the Swedish ship to obtain an explanation. Rising informed them that he was obeying the orders of his government, whose representative at the Hague had been told that neither the States General nor the West India Company had authorized the erection of this Dutch fort on the territory of the Swedish crown. Two shotted guns were then fired over the fort as a sig- Capture of nal, and the ten or twelve Dutch soldiers in garrison were mir

. immediately disarmed. Seven or eight of these, with Van Tienhoven, were sent to Manhattan; the others, with Bikker, remained, and took an oath of allegiance to Sweden. The capture of Fort Casimir happening on Trinity Sunday, the name of the post was changed to " Trefalldig- Named heet,” or Trinity. It was soon rebuilt under the superin-ity by the tendence of Lindstrom the engineer, who also constructed a large map, including both sides of the river as far as Sankikan, or the Falls at Trenton. Swen Schute was installed as commander of Fort Trinity; and Rising, after announcing to Stuyvesant his arrival and the capture of the 27 May. Dutch fort, relieved Pappegoya of his temporary authority, and assumed the government of New Sweden. A meet

Fort Casi

Fort Trin


6 June.



27 July.


Ch. XVII. ing was soon held with the Indian sachems at Tinnicum,

and a treaty of friendship was arranged with the natives. 1654.

The next month, Rising informed his government that, 11 July.

from seventy persons whom he found in New Sweden, the population there had now risen to three hundred and sixty-eight, "including the Hollanders and others." 661 hope," he added, “we may be able to preserve them in order and in duty, and to constrain them, if necessary. I will do in this respect all that depends upon me. We will also endeavor to shut up the river."*

The news of the surprise of Fort Casimir reached Stuyvesant in the midst of his preparations to defend New Netherland from the expected attack of the English. It was out of the question to attempt the recovery of that distant post, in the threatening aspect of public affairs at

New Amsterdam; but the mortified director took care to sant's re- communicate to his superiors in Holland all the details of

Bikker's pusillanimous conduct in this dishonorable surrender of the fort.”+

Not long afterward, an opportunity of retaliating was ship seized afforded to Stuyvesant. A Swedish ship, the Golden

Shark, in charge of Hendrick van Elswyck, bound to the South River, entered Sandy Hook Bay by mistake, and anchored behind Staten Island. Discovering his error, the captain sent a boat up to Manhattan for a pilot. The director instantly ordered the boat's crew to the guardhouse; and sent soldiers down to seize the ship, and bring the factor a prisoner up to Fort Amsterdam.

Stuyvesant now invited the Swedish governor to visit New Amsterdam, " to arrange and settle some unexpected differences;" and promised him "a cordial reception, with comfortable lodgings, and a courteous treatment." But Rising, preferring his lodgings at Tinnicum, declined the Dutch director's proffered hospitality. The Shark was therefore detained, and her cargo removed to the compa

22 Sept.


at Manhattan,

25 Sept.

1 October.

* Hol. Doc., viii., 45, 46, 85–90, 106, 107; Alb. Rec., ix., 242 ; Acrelius, 414; Campanius, 76-78, 82 ; O'Call., ii., 274, 275 ; S. Hazard, Ann. Penn., 148–155, 158. Bozman, ij., 489, 490, misled by Chalmers' absurd account, 632, falls into a series of very curious blunders.

+ Hol. Doc., viii., 88; Alb. Rec., ix., 271.

of English


ny's magazine, “until a reciprocal restitution shall have Ch. XVII. been made." The Swedish factor sent a long protest to

1654. Stuyvesant, complaining of his conduct, and defending 27 October that of Rising; and the Dutch authorities, in reply, commented severely upon the proceedings of the Swedish gov. ernor, who had surprised Fort Casimir “at a moment when we and our nation were in great distress, and utterly incapable to resist at the same time two such powerful neighbors in their attacks from two opposite quarters."*

In the mean time, news had reached Fort Amsterdam Settlement that some Englishmen from the New Haven colony had at West begun a settlement near “Vredeland," in West Chester, where Anne Hutchinson had formerly lived. The leader of these persons was Thomas Pell, of Norfolk, an adherent to the royal cause, who, on emigrating to New Haven, had refused to swear allegiance to the colonial authorities, and had been twice fined for contempt. Fiscal van Tienhoven was, therefore, sent to forbid the English intruders 5 Nov. from settling themselves on the lands " long before bought and paid for, near Vredeland."" But Pell, disregarding Stuyvesant's mandate, soon afterward purchased from the 14 Nov. sachem, " Ann Hook," and five others of his tribe, a large tract, including the present town of Pelham, in West Chester, and began to build.

A tract of land on Oyster Bay, which from the time of Oyster the Hartford treaty New England seems to have considered a debatable territory, having been purchased, in 1653, from the Sachem of Mattinnecock, by Wright, Mayo, Leveridge, and several other Englishmen from Sandwich, the purchasers applied to New Haven to be received under that jurisdiction. But Stuyvesant, viewing the settlement as an encroachment upon the Dutch boundary, complained to the New England authorities. No notice, however, was taken of the complaint, and the English intruders remained quietly in their new settlement.


+ Alb. Rec., ix., 236, 241–246, 263-272; S. Hazard, Ann. Penn., 155–166 ; New Amst. Rec., ii.

+ Alb. Rec., ix., 275 ; Bolton's West Chester, i., 515–522 ; ii., 156; O'Call., ii., 283; ante, p. 366.


Stuyvesant at Gravesend.

The seditious proceedings at Gravesend, which the

West India Company had directed to be punished " in an 1654. 23 Nov.* exemplary manner," had meanwhile been chastised by the

removal from the magistracy of the arch traitors Baxter and Hubbard. To allay any popular discontent, Stuyvesant now visited that settlement in person, and became the guest of Lady Moody. The people were called together, and told that they might, if they pleased, nominate new magistrates, or might remain until the time for the next election under the existing board, consist of William Wilkins, commissary, John Maurice, sheriff, and John Tilton, town clerk. Or, a fourth member might be immediately added to the court, if it should be desired. But the people preferred that things should remain as they were for the present; and Stuyvesant, recommending to them 66 to unite with their fear of God the honor of their magistrates, and to pay obedience to both," returned to New Amsterdam, in the vain hope that sedition had been quelled, and covetousness repressed, and the Dutch territory effectually secured against the plotting of its English inhabitants.*

The internal condition of New Netherland was now such, in the director's judgment, as to warrant him in leaving the province and undertaking a voyage to the West Indies for the purpose of establishing a trade with those islands. In taking this step, however, he acted entirely upon his own responsibility, and “ without the knowledge or approbation” of the Chamber at Amsterdam. A “gay repast” was given to him at the City Hall, where

he delivered to the presiding burgomaster, Martin Kregier, New Am- the painted coat of arms, the seal, and the silver signet of

New Amsterdam, which had just been received from the directors in Holland. The city government again endeavored to obtain from him the right to nominate proper persons from among whom the new magistrates for the next year should be chosen. Stuyvesant, however, declined ;

8 Dec. Seal and coat of arms of


* Alb. Rec., ix., 75, 106, 166, 230, 256, 287; New Haven Rec., 1., 63, 96 ; O'Call., ii , 267, 281, 282; Thompson's L. I., 1., 485; ii., 173.

24 Dec.

West Indies,

of New Am

City Hall

and the old board was continued, with Allard Anthony as CH. XVII. a new burgomaster, and Johannes Nevius as schepen.

1654. Leaving the government of the province in the hands of De Sille and his colleagues, the director set sail for the Stuyvesant West Indies on Christmas eve.*

The burgomasters and schepens, finding that a better 1655. police was necessary, now appointed the notary, Dirck van anschelSchelluyne, to be the high constable of New Amsterdam, constable and furnished him with detailed instructions for the exe- Sterdam. cution of his duties. The City Hall, which had hitherto been encumbered by the storage of a quantity of salt, and by various " lodgers,” was ordered to be repaired and 1 March. "lined with boards;" and its former tenants were notified repaired. to depart, “so that the Stadt Huys be not wholly ruined by the salt, nor occupied by others.”+

Serious embarrassments annoyed the provincial council from the moment the administration fell into its hands. Baxter, who, on being superseded in his magistracy, at Gravesend, had gone to New England, returned to Long Island early the next year, and spread reports that the Pro-January tector had ordered the governors of the New England col- ances at onies to take the whole of that island from the Dutch, and by force if necessary. Fiscal Van Tienhoven was therefore sent, with Burgomaster Anthony, to the English villages to quell the threatened disturbances. The commissioners reached Gravesend just as Baxter, Hubbard, and 9 March. Grover were hoisting the British flag, and reading a sedi- Hubbard, tious paper declaring that “we, as free-born British sub- ver. jects, claim and assume to ourselves the laws of our nation and Republic of England over this place, as to our persons and property, in love and harmony, according to the general peace between the two states in Europe and this country." The chief traitors, Baxter and Hubbard,



and Gro

* Alb. Rec., iv., 136, 151, 180; viii., 98; ix., 297, 298, 306; X., 26,70 ; New Amst. Rec., ii., 59, 60; Doc. Hist. N. Y., iii., 397 ; Val. Man., 1851, 420. The city seal consisted of the arms of Old Amsterdam-three crosses saltier--with a beaver for a crest. On the mantle above were the initial letters G. W. C., for “Chartered West India Company," to which the island of Manhattan especially belonged. Underneath was the legend “SIGILLUM AMSTELLODAMENSIS IN Novo Belgio," and around the border was a wreath of laurel.

† New Amst. Rec., ii., 76, 77-81, 92 ; Val. Man., 1848, 384.

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