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12 October. Stuyvesant's return.



CH. XVII. director; and an express was sent to the South Kiver to

call Stuyvesant immediately home to New Amsterdam. 1655.

The return of the energetic director revived the spirits of the colonists. Soldiers were sent to the neighboring settlements; the ships in port were detained; and such of their passengers as could bear arms were forbidden to leave the province “ until it should please God to change the

aspect of affairs." Those who protested were fined, and for defense. bid to “possess their souls in patience." All persons were

forbidden to go into the country without special permission, nor unless in sufficient numbers to secure their safety. To prevent the savages from scaling the wall, a plank “curtain” was built, and upward of six thousand guilders were assessed upon and contributed by “the merchants, traders, schippers, factors, passengers, and citizens generally," to pay the expense.

The savages finding the captives a burden, now sent back

Pos, the superintendent at Staten Island, with proposals 17 October. for their ransom; and a few days afterward, the chief of

the Hackinsacks liberated fourteen of his prisoners, asking for some powder and ball in return. Stuyvesant imme

diately sent the chief a present of ammunition and two In21 October. dians in exchange. Twenty-eight more "Christians" were ransomed. brought back, and a message that others would be restor

ed for a proper ransom. It was not, however, the red

man's practice to exchange prisoners; and no Europeans 26 October. would be given up for Indians. Several more captives

were soon ransomed by a stipulated payment in powder

and lead. The commissioners of the United Colonies in Sympathy of the N. E. session at New Haven, hearing that the savages had taken

many Dutch prisoners, agreed to send “two or three meet messengers to endeavor their redemption." But news coming that “the worst was passed,” and that the Dutch were in treaty with the Indians, the commissioners 6 ceased any further prosecution."*

Rising now coming to New Amsterdam, on his return


25 Sept.


* Alb. Rec., iv., 218; viii., 158; X., 133-165 ; New Amst. Rec., ii., 216–225; Relation, 1655–6, 11 ; Hazard, ii., 336;. O'Call., ii., 290-294; Thompson's L. I., il., 173; ante, p. 525.

24 October.



to Europe, charged Stuyvesant with a breach of the capit- Ch. XVII. ulation on the South River. The director vindicated him

1655. self with dignity and effect. A few days afterward, the late governor of New Sweden embarked with his suite in Return of two vessels of the West India Company; and, landing at 3 Nov. Plymouth, he communicated the recent occurrences to the 26 Dec. Swedish minister at London,

A subordinate government was immediately organized 29 Nov. on the South River. John Paul Jacquet, who had been in ment orthe company's service at Brazil, was commissioned as vice- the South director; Andries Hudde was made secretary and survey. or; and Elmerhuysen Klein was adjoined as counselor. These three officers, with two of the “most expert freemen,” were to form the Court of Civil Justice. Fort Casimir, now regaining its original name, was to be the seat of government, above which no trading vessels were to go. The Swedes were to be closely watched, and if any should be found disaffected, they were to be sent away " with all imaginable civility," and, if possible, be induced to come to Manhattan. The vice-director was also required to 3 Dec. “ maintain and protect the Reformed religion, as it is learned and taught in this country, in conformity to the word of God and the Synod of Dordrecht, and to promote it as far as his power may extend."

On reaching the South River, Jacquet found that the 18 Dec. whole population consisted of only about a dozen families. vice-diPolice regulations were immediately adopted ; and Fort Casimir, on a survey, was found to be in very "disrupted 25 Dec. and tottering condition.” A deputation of the neighboring sachems soon visited the new vice-director, and a liberal commercial treaty was arranged, with the assistance 29 Dec. of the inhabitants. In the absence of a Dutch clergyman, Lokenius, the Lutheran minister at Christina, occasionally came down to Fort Casimir to conduct divine service.*

The vessels which conveyed Rising, carried out, also, a October. “simple and true narrative" of the recent Indian troubles,



* Alb. Rec., X., 135–146, 173, 186–191, 399, 403-407; xi., 127-133 ; xiii., 345-367; Hol. Doc., viii., 1, 16; S. Hazard, Ann. Penn., 197-208.




10 Nov.


CH. XVII. in the form of a petition to the States General, the West

India Company, and the city government of Amsterdam. 1655.

The defenseless condition of the country was explained, asked from and assistance was earnestly implored. In the mean time,

the popular mind was ill at ease; and Stuyvesant took the opinions of his council respecting the propriety of a war with the Indians, the best means to recover the Dutch who still remained prisoners among the Weckquaesgeeks and the Highland tribes, and the replenishment of the treasury, which had been exhausted by the South River expedition and the ransom of the Christian captives. The only counselor in favor of war was Van Tienhoven. Stuyvesant himself, attributing the recent outbreak to the

rashness of a few -hot-headed individuals,” thought a Precaution- war inexpedient. The people should rather reform themures pro- selves, abate all irregularities, and promote the settlement

of villages with proper defenses. A block-house should be built at Hackinsack, and another at Weckquaesgeek, and all armed Indians should be excluded from the settlements of the Europeans. To raise a fund for the redemption of the remaining captives, he proposed an increase of the taxes on lands, houses, and liquors; as, in his judg. ment, the luxurious habits, and high wages common in the province did not argue an inability to contribute for the public service, but “rather a malevolent unwillingness, arising from an imaginary liberty in a new, and, as some pretend, a free country." But the council, in view of the condition of the province, resisted any addition to the direct taxes. The excise, however, was increased ; that of New Amsterdam was farmed out, for a year, at five thousand and thirty guilders, and that of Beverwyck, including Rensselaerswyck, Katskill, and Esopus, at two thousand and thirteen. A delegation from the Long Isl

and Indians now visited Manhattan, declaring that, since peaceful. the general peace of 1645, they had done the Dutch no

harm, “not even to the value of a dog." They had been twelve years at war with the enemies of the Hollanders; and they now sent a bundle of wampum as a token of the


Excises farmed out.

27 Nov. Long Island Indians

friendship of the Eastern chiefs. The River Indians, nev- Ch. XVD. ertheless, continuing sullen, kept the captive Christians as

1655. pledges to secure them from the vengeance of the Dutch.*

The close of this year was marked by a new display of Stuyvesant's imperious character. Through all their social and political trials, the Dutch colonists had preserved their hereditary elasticity of spirit; and bringing with them the cheerful habits of their nation, they naturally desired to enjoy in New Netherland the pastimes in which they had joined at “Pinckster” and other holidays in Holland. But the severe director would not tolerate within his government those frivolities which, in the Fatherland, were "looked at through the fingers.” An ordinance was according- 31 Dec. ly published, declaring that “from this time forth, within and Maythis province of New Netherland, on New Year, or May- prohibited. days, there shall be no firing, nor planting of May-poles, nor any beating of drums, nor treating," under penalty of twelve guilders for the first offense, double for the second, and “ arbitrary correction” for the third.f

On his way from Quebec to the Mohawk country, the September Jesuit Father Le Moyne visited Beverwyck, where he was Moyne at hospitably received by the Dutch colonists and by De Deck-wyck er, the new vice-director. The Mohawks welcomed the visits the Canadian missionary to their castles; and the gentle spirit of Christianity seemed at last to have won that warlike nation to peace with the French.

News of the outbreak of the Indians around Manhattan soon reached Fort Orange; and the authorities, alarmed lest the Iroquois might make common cause with their red Dutch and brethren at the South, prudently renewed the ancient al- hawks. liance between the Dutch and the Mohawks. The next 18 Nov. month, a hundred warriors of that tribe visited Fort Orange, to announce that they were about to attack the Hurons, and to ask the Dutch to remain neutral. At the same time, they complained that they were not treated as hospitably at Fort Orange as the Hollanders were at the Mo

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Mohawls. and the Mohawks.

October New allance be. tween the

* Alb. Rec., X., 139-142; 150-173 ; Heemstede Rec., 1., 25; O'Call., ii., 296-298. + New Amsterdam Rec., I., 36, 407; ii., 299.

19 Sept.

CH. XV11. hawk castles; and that for the most trifling repairs to their

guns they were obliged to pay in wampum. This was not 1655. The Dutch treating them as brethren. The Dutch authorities prom

ised neutrality, and explained that their people visited the Mohawk country only in small numbers; if their red brethren would observe a similar rule, they would be handsomely entertained at Beverwyck. The Hollanders earned their own bread ; and, as they were accustomed to receive the rewards of labor, their Mohawk brothers should not complain at being treated as the Christians treated each other. These explanations were satisfactory; and the red men, laying their wampum belts at the feet of the Dutch, received presents of powder and lead, “with their customary barbarous applaudings,” and departed in great joy.

Light now gleamed over the regions west of the Mo29 October. hawks. Two Jesuit missionaries, Joseph Chaumonot and

Claude Dablon, setting out from Quebec, passed up the Saint Lawrence, and landed at Oswego. In a few days the Fathers were hospitably welcomed at the principal village of the Onondagas; and a site for a permanent settle

ment was chosen at “Lake Genentaha,” near the Salt nentaha. Springs which Le Moyne had visited the year before. With

fervid eloquence, Chaumonot preached the word; and the excited crowd sang the chorus, led by their chief, “Glad tidings! glad tidings! it is well that we have spoken to

gether." The zeal of the natives built a temporary chapel chapel at of bark in a single day; the solemn service of the Roman

Church was chanted in the silent forest; and the emblem of Christianity and the banner of France were simultaneously raised in Onondaga.*

* Relation, 1655-6, 7-23; 1657-8, 30; Journal de Dablon; Creuxius, 739–775 ; Charlevoix, i., 320-322 ; Bancroft, iii., 142–144; Renss. MSS.; Fort Orange Rec. ; O'Call., ii.,

Chaumonot and Dablon.

5 NOV.

9 Nov Lake Ge

18 Nov. Jesuit



292, 306 ; Clark's Onondaga, i., 139–151, 171, 172; Doc. Hist. N. Y., 1., 44; ante, p. 592.

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