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6 March. Expedition sent to West Chester,

CH. XVIII. Complained to us, because it has always been our intention

to let them enjoy all calmness and tranquillity. Where1656.

fore, you will not hereafter publish any similar placards without our previous consent, but allow to all the free exercise of their religion within their own houses.***

Information had meanwhile reached the provincial government that the English intruders at West Chester not only sheltered and encouraged fugitives from justice, but had kept up a constant correspondence with the Indians during the late “dismal engagements with the savages." To defend the rights of the West India Company, Captain De Koninck, Captain Newton, and Van Tienhoven, the schout-fiscal, were now sent thither with a sufficient force, and ordered to apprehend the leaders and compel the other settlers to remove thence with their property. The expedition was met with a show of resistance by Lieutenant Wheeler and an armed force; but the English were promptly disarmed, and twenty-three of them were conveyed as

prisoners to New Amsterdam, and secured on board the 14 March. ship Balance. The runaways from the Dutch were sent

to prison; those from New England and elsewhere were 16 March. put under civil arrest. Wheeler and his party soon offered

to submit themselves to the Dutch government, upon condition of being allowed to elect their magistrates, make laws not contrary to those of the province, divide the lands among the townsfolk, and have their arms restored. Stuyvesant replied that they should have the same privileges

as the freemen of the villages of Middelburgh, Breuckelen, Midwout, and Amersfoort were enjoying." The prisoners were then released ; and a few of the English who had taken up arms were “commanded to depart the limits of New Netherland, unless some of the inhabitants of Vredeland adopt them and become bail for their good behavior.” A few days afterward, a double nomination of magistrates was sent to Stuyvesant, with a petition that the settlers might have certain local privileges, that they might be * Cor. Classis Amsterdam; Letters of 6th October, 1653 ; 25th July, 1654 ; 18th March,


25 March

1655 ; Alb. Rec., iv., 130, 212; vii., 355-357; New Amst. Rec., i., 41, 42; ii., 350 ; Fort Orange Rec.; O'Call., ii., 317, 320; Bancroft, ii., 300; ante, p. 101, 102, 582.

First mag



furnished with a copy of the laws of the province - drawn Ch. XVIII. out in English,” and that the writings passed between them

1656. and the provincial authorities might be in English, so that they might"fully and perfectly understand them.” Stuyvesant promptly selected Thomas Wheeler, Thomas New- 28 March. man, and John Lord, from the nominees, as the first mag- istrates of istrates of West Chester, which now obtained the name of or West - Oost-dorp," or East Village. A decision upon the petition was, however, postponed for further consultation.*

Another village was now incorporated on Long Island. Upon the petition of several of the inhabitants of Heemstede for permission to begin a plantation about midway between that village and Amersfoort, Stuyvesant readily granted them free leave to establish a town with such priv- 21 March. ileges " as the inhabitants of New Netherland generally do possess in their lands, and likewise in the choice of their magistrates as in the other villages or towns." The new settlement was named by the Dutch“Rust-dorp," or "Qui- Rust-dorp, et Village." The settlers themselves wished to call it " Jemeco," after the Indian name of the beaver pond in its neighborhood. The village is now known as Jamaica. At the first regular town meeting, in the spring of the next year, Daniel Denton, the oldest son of the Presbyterian Daniel clergyman at Heemstede, was appointed clerk, " to write town clerk. and enter all acts and orders of public concernment to the town.” A few years afterward, he published the first original English “ Description of New York, formerly called New Netherland."'4

Baxter and Hubbard had now been nearly a year in the keep of Fort Amsterdam. At the intercession of Sir Henry Moody and the Gravesend magistrates, Stuyvesant released Hubbard, and transferred Baxter, upon bail, to the debtor's room at the court-house until the Amsterdam Chamber should decide upon his case. A few weeks aft

or Jamaica.

* Alb. Rec., iv., 187; X., 38, 250, 315-346 ; xi., 283–321 ; xvi., 303 ; O’Call., ii., 312314; Bolton's West Chester, ii., 157-161 ; ante, p. 601.

† Alb. Rec., X., 339 ; xiv., 12 ; Jamaica Rec. ; Thompson's L. I., ii., 20, 96, 97 ; O'Call., ii., 323. Denton's work was printed at London in 1670, and a handsome edition, with notes by Mr. Furman, was republished here in 1845.

Baxter at

New En. gland.

Cu. XVIII. erward, the faithless Englishman forfeited his bail and es

caped to Gravesend, where he again began to plot against 1656.

his former patrons. Several of the inhabitants were inGravesend. duced by him to sign a memorial praying Cromwell to take

them under the protection of England, and emancipate them from the dominion of the Dutch. The memorial was carried to London by James Grover, who, with Baxter and Hubbard, had hoisted the English colors at Gravesend the year before. To public treason Baxter now added private dishonesty. Besides other debts, he owed two hundred guilders to the poor fund; and his cattle were under seizure. These he secretly removed at night. His defrauded

creditors became clamorous; his farm and other effects Escapes to were seized in execution; and the bankrupt traitor fled to

New England to work all the mischief he could against
New Netherland. *

On the South River the Swedes remained generally loyal; though some of them, found plotting with the savages, were ordered to be sent to Fort Amsterdam, and such as

would not take the oath of allegiance to be transported. Swedish Early in the spring, the Mercury, a ship which had been South Riv- dispatched from Sweden, with one hundred and thirty em

igrants, before news of the surrender had been received,

arrived at Fort Casimir; and Stuyvesant, on learning the 99 March. circumstances, directed Jacquet to prevent the landing of

the Swedes, but to allow the Mercury to come to Manhattan for a supply of provisions. Huygh, the Swedish captain, then proceeded overland to New Amsterdam, and laid his case before the director. But Stuyvesant would allow no foreigners to settle themselves on the South River; and a messenger was dispatched thither with directions to send the Swedish ship to Fort Amsterdam. Meanwhile, several Swedes and Indians, headed by Pappegoya, had boarded the Mercury and conveyed her up the river as far as

Mantes Hook. The rumor soon reaching New Amster27 April. dam, Ensign Dirck Smit was sent with a re-enforcement


11 April

12 April.

* Alb. Rec., iv., 265 ; V., 367; X., 180, 234, 299 ; xi., 119, 182, 266 ; xii., 321 ; Hol. Doc., ix., 165; O'Call., ii., 342; ante, p. 597.

Fort Amsterdam.

cf twelve or fifteen soldiers across the country to the South CH. XVIII. River; and a few days afterward, the ship Balance was

1656. dispatched, with two members of the council and the Brought to Swedish captain, to secure the vessel, and “soothe the animosities between the Christians and the savages.” The 11 July. Mercury was soon recovered and anchored before Fort Amsterdam, whence, after her cargo had been sold, she returned to Sweden.*

The States General, hearing of the arrival in England of the Swedish soldiers whom Stuyvesant had sent home, ordered the Amsterdam directors to inform them fully of 6 Jan. the circumstances. A few days afterward, the company submitted a long "deduction," with voluminous appendi- 24 Jan. ces, explaining all the proceedings on the South River from the year 1638; and soliciting help to secure them in possession of their recovered territory. These documents were 28 Jan. referred to a committee of their High Mightinesses, in secret session.t

Having at last received a copy of the Hartford treaty, the 22 Feb. Amsterdam Chamber applied to the States General to rati- tion of the fy it on their part, and thus promote the settlement of the treaty. long-delayed boundary question. A formal act was therefore passed, under the seal of their High Mightinesses, approving and ratifying the arrangement; and the West India Company was at the same time directed “ to take care that the like act of ratification of the said articles be obtained of the Lord Protector of England.” But this injunction seems never to have been fulfilled ; and the affair remained thus in suspense until the restoration of Charles II.

Intelligence of the conquest of New Sweden now reaching Stockholm, the king directed his resident at the Hague to bring the subject before the Dutch government. Ap

* Alb. Rec., X., 351-384, 411-421 ; xi., 326-374, 433 ; xiii., 1-7, 374; Lond. Doc., iv., 172; N. Y. Col. Rec., iii., 343 ; S. Hazard, Ann. Penn., 211-219; Acrelius, 419.

+ Hol. Doc., viii., 1-117. Appended to these papers, as they exist in the archives at the Hague, is a copy of an engraved map of New Netherland, published just before at Amsterdam, entitled “ Novi Belgii, Novæ que Angliæ, nec non partis Virginice Tabula, multis in locis emendata, à Nicolao Joannis Visschero."

& Alb. Rec., iv., 207; Hol. Doc., viii., 119-129; ix., 98, 99; X., 15; Thurloe, iv., 526 ; Letters of De Witt, iii., 192; Hazard, ii., 549; Groot Placaatbook, ii., 1278; Lambrechtsen, 106; ante, p. 520, 545; post p. 685.



Swedish resident at

Fort ordered to be built at Oyster Bay.

Ch. XVIII. pelboom accordingly presented a memorial setting forth the

right of the Swedes on the South River, “optimo titulo 1656. 22 March: juris," and praying that the injuries which they had sufMemorial fered from the West India Company might be redressed.

Sweden, however, was now at war with Poland; Oxenthe Hague. stierna was no more; and the throne of the victorious Gus.

tavus was filled by the less fortunate Charles the Tenth. The complaints of Sweden, though renewed during eight years, never moved the government at the Hague. But the Swedish colonists remained on the shores of the Delaware; at Stockholm they were remembered with affectionate regard; and in the New World where they had chosen their home, a part of their descendants “still preserve their

altar and their dwellings round the graves of their fathers.99* 13 May

The West India Company now sent directions, to Stuyvesant to build a fort at Oyster Bay, and maintain by force of arms, if necessary, the integrity of the Dutch province, the boundaries of which had just been formally confirmed by the States General. “ We do not hesitate," they added, “ to approve of your expedition on the South River, and its happy termination, while it agrees in substance with our orders. We should not have been displeased, however, if such a formal capitulation for the surrender of the forts had not taken place, but that the whole business had been transacted in a manner similar to that of which the Swedes set us an example when they made themselves masters of Fort Casimir.''

At the same time, the company, yielding to the “reithoven dis- erated complaints” of the people of New Netherland, gave

orders to Stuyvesant no longer to employ either Cornelis van Tienhoven or his brother Adriaen in the public service. The schout-fiscal was declared to be the prominent cause of that doleful massacre" the previous autumn, and

his brother was detected in fraud as receiver general. NiDe Sille ap- casius de Sille was appointed schout-fiscal of the province, his place and De Decker confirmed as commissary at Fort Orange.

13 May. Van Tien


* Hol. Doc., viii., 130-135; X., 22-41 ; Letters of De Witt, i., 276; iii., 201, 202 ; Thurloe, iv., 599, 612; Aitzema, iii., 1260 ; V., 247; Hol. Mer., 1656, p. 30; O'Call., ii., 327,

† Alb. Rec., iv., 204-207 ; S. Hazard, Ann. Penn., 209.

573 ; Bancroft, ii., 297, 298.

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