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whose orders the name of Fort Christina was changed to Ch. XVIII. that of " Altona." It had been Stuyvesant's intention to
1657, continue Jacquet in command of this territory; but com- Altona. plaints of his misgovernment having been made by Aller- 20 April. ton and others, the director ordered him to transfer the succeeded company's effects to Hudde. This was done; and Jacquet, 24 May. on his return to Manhattan, was arrested and prosecuted. *
During the first few months of Alrich's directorship, New Amstel prospered. In the absence of a clergyman, the religious instruction of the colonists was superintended by Evert Pietersen the "Voorleezer," who had accompanied them from Holland. The Classis of Amsterdam, however, 9 March. soon commissioned Domine Everardus Welius, a young Welius. man of much esteem "in life, in studies, in gifts, and in conversation,” to take charge of the congregation; who sailed for the South River in company with about four 25 May. hundred new emigrants. On their arrival, a church was 21 August. organized, of which Alrichs and Jean Williams were ap- New Ampointed elders, and Pietersen “fore-singer, Zieken-trooster, and deacon," with a colleague. The municipal government was now remodelled; the town was laid out; buildings were rapidly erected; industry promised success; and thirty families were tempted to emigrate from Manhattan to the flourishing colony of New Amstel.
The Gravesend memorial which Grover had carried to English Cromwell the last year awakened the attention of the gov-territorial ernment at Whitehall; and a statement of “the English rights to the northern parts of America” was prepared, in which Cabot's voyage and the Virginia and New England patents were assumed to give the English the “best general right," the Dutch were roundly affirmed to be intruders, and the absurd story was gravely repeated that King James had granted them Staten Island "as a wateringplace for their West India fleets." It was, therefore, advised that the English towns at the west of Long Island
* Alb. Rec., xv., 138, 139, 149–151, 187; S. Hazard, 233-236; Acrelius, 418-421.
† Letter of Classis of Amsterdam, 25th May, 1657 ; Pietersen to Classis, 12th August, 1657 ; 12th December, 1659; Alb. Rec., iv., 237, 247 ; vii., 406 ; xii., 417–449; Hol. Doc., XV., 213-252 ; xvi., 196-200; O'Call., ii., 336, 337; S. Hazard, Ann. Penn., 237–241.
Ch. XVIII. should be very cautious of making themselves guilty ei
ther of ignorant or willful betraying the rights of their na1657.
tion, by their subjecting themselves and lands to a foreign
A letter was accordingly addressed by the Protector to to English "the English well-affected inhabitants on Long Island, in on Long
America,” which Grover, having conveyed to Gravesend,
insisted should be opened and read. The magistrates, how24 August. ever, declined, until they had consulted Stuyvesant, who at
once ordered Grover to be arrested, and brought, with his papers, to New Amsterdam. Hearing of this, the English in the neighboring villages called a meeting in Jamaica " to agitate;" and it was proposed at Gravesend to send a messenger to inform Cromwell of the “wrongs and injuries which we receive here from those in authority over us.
The director, however, was neither intimidated nor thrown 30 October. off his guard. He discreetly sent the letter, unopened, to Stuyvesant the Amsterdam Chamber, so as not to be accused by the sterdam di- Lord Protector of the crime of opening his letter or break
ing his seal,” or to be censured by his own superiors for
admitting letters from a foreign prince or potentate, from which rebellion might arise.”+
In the mean time, the Lutheran congregation at Amsterdam had taken measures to send out a clergyman, John Ernestus Goetwater, to organize a church and preach at Manhattan. Neither the West India Company nor the Classis of Amsterdam were consulted. 66 We can not yet resolve," wrote the directors to Stuyvesant, "to indulge the Lutherans with greater freedom in the exercise of their religious worship than we allowed them in our letter of the
fourteenth of June, 1656.". Upon learning that Goetwa25 May
ter had actually sailed, the Classis informed their ministers at New Amsterdam that the company's intention was to permit "every one to have freedom within his own
Lutheran clergyman sent to New Netherland.
* Thurloe, V., 81–83 ; Hazard, i., 602-605; ante, p. 620. The question of title has been considered, ante, p. 4, 44, 96, 144, 189. It may be added that, in the opinion of Louis XIV., the right of the Dutch was “the best founded," and for the English to call them “intruders” was “a species of mockery.”—Let. D’Estrades, iii., 340. + Hol. Doc., ix., 165–168, 269, 271 ; Alb. Rec., iv., 265; Gravesend Records ; O'Call.,
dwelling to serve God in such a manner as his religion re- CH. XVIII. quires, but without authorizing any public meetings or con
The arrival of Goetwater at New Amsterdam was the 6 July. signal for fresh troubles. The Dutch clergymen represent at New ed the inconvenience of allowing the Lutherans to organ- dam. ize a church; and Goetwater was cited before the civil authorities. Having frankly admitted that he had no other commission than a letter from the Lutheran Consistory at Amsterdam," he was directed not to hold any meeting or do any clerical service, but regulate his conduct according to the placards of the province against private conventicles. At the instance of the Established clergy, he was soon aft- 4 Sept. erward ordered to return to Holland. Against this the Lu- return. therans protested in vain; and Goetwater's ill health alone induced the director to suspend the execution of his harsh 16 October decree.*
New England had, meanwhile, been maturing her system of intolerance, and "Laud was justified by the men whom he had wronged." Among the independent sects to The people which the political troubles in England had given rise, Quakers. none had gone quite so far as “the people called Quakers." Under the preaching of George Fox, the son of a weaver at Drayton, numerous converts to a benevolent faith had declared their emancipation from the creeds and ceremonies of all existing ecclesiastical organizations. The disciples of Fox soon found their way to America ; and their fervid enthusiasm alarmed the governments of New England. Several of them were imprisoned at Boston, and 6 thrust out of the jurisdiction." A special statute was passed that none of the “cursed sect” should be brought into Massachusetts. This was followed by a law forbid - 14 October. ding all persons to “entertain and conceal” a known Qua- of Massaker; and the unhappy sectarians were threatened, on conviction, with the loss of ears, and with having their tongues bored with a red-hot iron. New Plymouth, Connecticut,
* Alb Rec., iv., 234 ; xiv., 223, 405; Cor. Classis Amst. ; Letters of 22d May, 5th and 14th August, 22 October, 1657 ; Doc. Hist. N. Y., iii., 104; ante, p. 617, 626.
CH. XVIII. and New Haven adopted similar statutes. But Rhode Isl
and, nobly true to her grand principle of religious liberty, 1657. 13 October, steadily refused.
6. These people,” she replied to MassaLiberality chusetts, “ begin to loathe this place, for that they are not
opposed by the civil authority."*
Unhappily, the spirit of Massachusetts rather than that
of Rhode Island seems to have moved the government of 6 August. New Netherland. An English ship, the "Woodhouse," ararrive at rived at New Amsterdam, with a number of Quakers on sterdam. board, among whom were several of those who had been
banished from Boston the previous autumn. Two of these persons, Dorothy Waugh and Mary Witherhead, began to preach publicly in the streets, for which breach of the law they were arrested and imprisoned. A few days aft
erward they were discharged; and the ship, with most of 14 August. her Quaker passengers, sailed onward, through Hell-gate, Rhode Isl- to Rhode Island, “where all kinds of scum dwell, for it is
nothing else than a sink for New England."*
But Robert Hodgson, one of the Quakers, wishing to reHodgson. main in the Dutch province, went over to Long Island. At
Flushing he was well received. On visiting Heemstede, however, where Denton, the Presbyterian clergymán, ministered, Hodgson was arrested and committed to prison, whence he was transferred to the dungeon of Fort Amsterdam. Upon his examination before the council, he was convicted, and sentenced to labor two years at a wheelbarrow, along with a negro, or pay a fine of six hundred guilders. After a few days confinement, he was chained to a barrow, and ordered to work; and upon his refusal, was beaten by a negro with a tarred rope until he fell down. At length, after frequent scourgings and solitary imprisonments, the suffering Quaker was liberated, at the
* Hazard, ii., 347, 349, 551-554; Col. Laws Mass., 122, 123 ; Col. Rec. Conn., 283, 284 ; Hutchinson, i., 181, 454; Bancroft, i., 451–453 ; ii., 326–354; Hildreth, i., 401-406.
+ Letter of Megapolensis and Drisius to Classis, 14th August, 1657 ; Hutchinson, i., 180, 181 ; Besse, ii., 182 ; Hazard, Reg. Penn., vi., 174; Thompson's L. I., ii., 73, 288. . The Quakers who came to New Netherland in the Woodhouse were Christopher Holder, John Copeland, Sarah Gibbons, Dorothy Waugh, and Mary Witherhead, who had been banished from Boston the year before, and Humphrey Norton, Robert Hodgson, Richard Dowdney, William Robinson, and Mary Clarke.
intercession of the director's sister, Anna, widow of Nicho- Ch. XVIII las Bayard, and ordered to leave the province.
1657 In defiance of the ordinance against conventicles, Henry Townsend, one of the leading inhabitants of the new settlement of Rustdorp, or Jamaica, had ventured to hold meetings at his house. For this offense he was sentenced 13 Sept. to pay an "amende” of eight Flemish pounds, or to leave Townsen the province within six weeks, under pain of corporeal punishment. This was followed by a proclamation somewhat resembling the enactments of Massachusetts. Any person Proclamuentertaining a Quaker for a single night was to be fined against fifty pounds, of which one half was to go to the informer; and vessels bringing any Quaker into the province were to be confiscated. Upon its publication at Flushing, where Townsend formerly resided and had many friends, a spirited remonstrance to Stuyvesant was drawn up, by Edward Hart the town clerk, and signed by the inhabitants. They 27 Dec. refused to persecute or punish the Quakers, because “ the strance of law of love, peace, and liberty in the state, extending to Jews, Turks, and Egyptians, as they are considered the sons of Adam, which is the glory of the outward state of Holland, so love, peace, and liberty, extending to all in Christ Jesus, condemns hatred, war, and bondage.” Appealing to their charter, they declared that they would not lay violent hands upon any who might come among them in love. This remonstrance, bearing the names of twenty-nine of the inhabitants, and of Henry and John Townsend of Jamaica, was carried to New Amsterdam by Tobias Feake, the schout of Flushing. Stuyvesant's indignation was instantly aroused. Feake 1658.
1 January was arrested; and Farrington and Noble, two of the mag- Magisistrates, with Hart, the town clerk of Flushing, were sum-Flushing moned to Fort Amsterdam. Noble and Farrington, craving pardon for having subscribed the remonstrance, were forgiven upon promising good behavior; and Hart, its au- 10 January. thor, after three weeks imprisonment, was pardoned upon his humble submission and the intercession of several of 23 January. his neighbors. The weight of Stuyvesant's vengeance fell