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scárce and dear. An epidemic fever broke out; the sur- Ch. XVIII. geon and many children died; and most of the inhabit

1658. ants suffered from a climate to which they were not accustomed. While the disease was yet raging, the ship “ Mill” arrived from Holland, after a disastrous voyage, September. bringing many new emigrants, among whom were several children from the Orphan House at Amsterdam. The 10 October population of New Amstel now exceeded six hundred; but its inhabitants were “without bread," and the ship which brought the new emigrants brought no supply of provisions. Industry was crippled, while wages advanced ; Commissary Rynvelt and many “respectable” inhabit- 28 October. ants perished, and a long winter stared the famished survivors in the face. *

In the autumn of 1658, an important event happened in England. After raising his country to a prouder position among the nations of the earth than she had ever before held, the grand adventurer Cromwell died, in the zenith 3 Sept. of a power which eclipsed the majesty of legitimate kings. Oliver The night before his death was stormy. The wind blew a hurricane. Trees were uprooted in the Park at Westminster, and houses were unroofed about the London Exchange. The Roundheads asserted that God was warning the nation of the loss it was about to suffer ; while the Cavaliers maintained that the Prince of the power of the air was hovering over Whitehall to seize the soul of the expiring Protector.

The reins of government fell quietly into the hands of Oliver's oldest son, Richard. But the feeble young man was not the heir of his father's great qualities. He sign- 1659. ed a commission for the dissolution of Parliament, and Downfall found that he had signed his own act of abdication. The army again became supreme. Monk marched his soldiers across the Tweed ; and before many days it was certain that Charles the Second would be restored to the throne of his ancestors. *

Death of

of the Pro tectorate.

* Alb. Rec., iv., 273, 274; viii., 185 ; xil., 285, 456-485; xiv., 227–249, 314, 386–392; Hol. Doc., xvi., 57-79; O'Call., ii., 372–375 ; S. Hazard, Ann. Penn., 239-254 ; ante, p. 633.

† Lingard, xi., 298–300 ; xii., 1-60; Macaulay, i., 136–147 ; Bancroft, ii., 23-28.




Eastern boundary of New Netherland.

Though the treaty at Hartford had not been ratified by

the English government, and the New England colonies 1659.

had taken no steps to procure such ratification, its provisions had now, for several years, met a general and quiet acquiescence. Up to this period, whatever annoyance had been caused to the Dutch province by the progress of English encroachment at the East, had been chiefly caused by Connecticut and New Haven. But the time had come for Massachusetts to take a step which brought her in di. rect conflict with New Netherland.

The Hartford treaty had settled the boundary "between the English United Colonies and the Dutch proyince" on the main land, as extending from the west side of Greenwich Bay on a northerly line “twenty miles up into the country, and after, as it shall be agreed by the two governments of the Dutch and of New Haven, provid. ed the said line come not within ten miles of Hudson's Riv. er.” That treaty had been solemnly signed by the plenipotentiaries of the New England commissioners, of whom Simon Bradstreet, of Massachusetts, was one. Massachusetts, however, now found it convenient to understand the

agreement as extending only “so far as New Haven had Territorial jurisdiction." Under her own charter, she claimed all the Massachu- American territory between a line three miles south of the

Charles River and a line three miles north of the Merrimac River, and extending west from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The most northerly of these lines was claimed to be three miles north of the outlet of the Winnipiseogee Lake. The southernmost was at about the forty-second parallel of

claims of


latitude. If extended westward, it would have crossed the Ch. XIX. Hudson River, near Red Hook and Saugerties. The be

1659. ginning of the forty-third degree of latitude now forms the southern boundary of the State of New York, from the Delaware River to the county of Erie, in Pennsylvania. All the territory as far north of this line as the present counties of Warren and Oswego, in the State of New York, and as far west as the Pacific Ocean, was claimed by Massachusetts, in virtue of her patent from Charles the First.*

Nor did Massachusetts hesitate to assert her extravagant demand, under a charter which was eight years younger than that of the West India Company, and which, as far as it interfered with New Netherland, was " utterly void." A grant of land on the Hudson River, opposite to Fort Or- Massachuange, was made to a number of her principal merchants, land on the who were “enterprising a settlement and a trade with the River. Indians.” Early in the summer, an exploring party, setting out from Hartford, sailed up the North River, and Exploring spent several weeks in examining its attractive shores. Finding the region around the Wappinger's Kill more beautiful than any they had seen in New England, they selected a spot near its mouth as the place of their proposed settlement. Thence proceeding up to Fort Orange, they July. were honorably received and entertained by Commissary La Montagne. The region between the North River and the valley of the Connecticut being yet a wilderness, the English party asked Stuyvesant for permission to pass and repass by water. This, however, he refused; for he fore- Refused saw that such a settlement in the heart of the Dutch prov- to navigate ince would be fatal, “as many hounds are death to the hare." To prevent the English, he determined to establish a Dutch settlement at the Wappinger's Kill, and earn- 4 Sept. estly entreated the Amsterdam Chamber to send out immediately as many Polish, Lithuanian, Prussian, Dutch, Wappina or Flemish peasants as possible, to form a colony which ger’s Kill. should protect the yachts sailing up and down the river.


the North

Dutch set

* Hazard, i., 571, 591 ; Hutchinson, i., 191, 192; Journal N. Y. Prov. Assembly, 8th March, 1773 ; Dunlap's N. Y., il., Appendix, ccv.-ccvii. ; Revised Statutes N, Y., 1., 64; ante, p. 189, 519, 520. † Alb. Rec., xviii., 31-34 ; xxiv., 215; Hutchinson, i., 150.


13 Feb.

erland al

25 April. Curtius Latin schoolmas


4 July.

Yielding to the earnest solicitation of the citizens of New

Amsterdam, the West India Company reluctantly consent1659.

ed that their province, which had already been allowed to New Neth- trade for slaves on the coast of Africa, should now try the howed aler- “ experiment of a foreign commerce with France, Spain,

Italy, the Carribean Islands, and elsewhere, upon condition that the vessels should return with their cargoes either to New Netherland or to Amsterdam, and that furs should be exported to Holland alone. This concession was followed by another, perhaps quite as important. The vigilant exertions" of the directors to provide New Amsterdam with a Latin schoolmaster resulted in the engagement of Doctor Alexander Carolus Curtius, a professor in Lithuania, at a salary of five hundred guilders, and some perquisites In the course of the summer the “rector" arrived at New Amsterdam; and, on commencing his duties, was allowed by the city government two hundred guilders yearly Curtius likewise practiced as a physician.*

The Amsterdam directors also enjoined Megapolensis and Drisius to obey the former orders of the Chamber, and, " to prevent schism and promote tranquillity," directed them to follow the old form of baptism without waiting for the special directions of the Classis of Amsterdam. Finding that the metropolitan clergymen hesitated, these orders were re

newed. All moderate ministers in Holland, they were told, ality in re- looked upon the new formulary as an

the new formulary as an “indifferent” subject, joined by and as wanting the unanimous sanction of the Church.

Harmony could never be preserved, unless a too “overbearing preciseness" should be avoided ; and, if they should persist in their former course, the company would be obliged to allow the Lutherans a separate church of their

At the same time, the directors promised to send out other Dutch clergymen to New Netherland; but these must be “men not tainted with any needless preciseness, which is rather prone to create schisms than it is adapted to edify the flock.”+

13 Feb.

22 Dec. More liber

ligion en

the company.


* Alb. Rec., iv., 290, 291, 303 ; viii., 201; xviii., 19; xxiv., 193 ; New Amst. Rec., log 97, 98 ; iii., 378, 381 ; iv., 209; ante, p. 640; Paulding's New Amsterdam, 42.

+ Alb. Rec., iv., 289, 323, 324; viii., 195; ante, p. 643.

ed to Exo

The pus.


The letters which Megapolensis and Drisius had sent to Ch. XIX the Fatherland the last autumn awakened the attention

1659. of the Classis of Amsterdam to the spiritual wants of New Netherland; and earnest representations on the subject Clergymen. were addressed to the College of the XIX. It was difficult to induce any settled clergyman to leave his charge in Holland; but the Classis encouraged Hermanus Blom, a candidate for the ministry, to come out to New Amsterdam, where he arrived at the end of April. Esopus now seemed April. most in want of a clergyman; and its inhabitants, though anxious for a settled minister, had, up to this time, been obliged to content themselves with the services of a comforter of the sick, who read to the people, in one of the houses, on Sundays and festivals. Blom accordingly vis- Blom callited the new village, where he preached two sermons. people immediately organized a church, and presented the 17 August. candidate with a call to become their pastor, which, having accepted, he returned to Holland, to pass his examin- September.

. ation before the Classis and receive ordination.

The war now raging between the Iroquois and the French Temper of seemed to excite a thirst for European blood among the oth- ages. er savage tribes. Two soldiers who had deserted from Fort Orange were murdered near the Tachkanic Mount- 31 July. ains, while on their way to Hartford. The next month, some Raritans, tempted by a roll of wampum, massacred 26 August. a family at Mespath Kill, on Long Island. At Esopus Esopus. great fear prevailed; for the savages had already begun to complain that Stuyvesant had not given them their promised presents. The folly of the Dutch soon brought on another collision. Thomas Chambers, one of the original settlers, having employed several Indians to husk his corn, September. at the end of their day's work gave them some brandy for which they asked. A carouse followed; and one of the savages about midnight fired off his gun. The garrison at the block-house was alarmed, and the sergeant of the guard was sent out to see what was the cause of the disturbance. On his return, he reported that it was only the revelry of

* Hol. Doc., ix., 102, 103; Cor. Cl. Amst., Letter of 10th September, 1659.

the sav.


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