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English Jealousy of the Dutch, 687; Liberal Conditions offered by the West India

Company to English Emigrants to New Netherland, 688; Stuyvesant again per-

secutes Quakers, 689; Charter of Wiltwyck, or Wildwyck, at Esopus; Roelof

Swartwout Schout, 690; Purchase of "Schonowe," or Schenectady Flats, 691;

Bergen incorporated; Tielman van Vleeck Schout, 691, 692; Staten Island;

Domine Drisius preaches there in French, 692 ; New Utrecht and Boswyck, or

Bushwick, incorporated, 693; The Five Dutch Towns,” 693; Affairs at New

Amsterdam ; a Mint contemplated; Curtius succeeded by Luyck; Reputation of

the Latin School, 694; Salt-works on Coney Island, 694 ; Connecticut petitions

the King for a Charter, 695; Winthrop sails from New Amsterdam, 695; Pro-

posed Puritan Settlement in New Netherland ; Stuyvesant's Concessions, 696 ;

Calvert on the South River, 697; Mennonists propose to colonize the Horekill,

698; Singular Articles of Association, 698, 699; Plockhoy, their Leader, 699 ;

Beeckman and Hinoyossa, 699; Sir George Downing, the British Ambassador at

the Hague, 700; Lord Baltimore's and Lord Stirling's Claims, 701 ; Convention

between the United Provinces and Great Britain, 701; Berkeley and Winthrop

in London ; Royal Charter for Connecticut, 702; Encroaching Claims of the Con-

necticut Court, 703; West Chester and Long Island Towns annexed, 703; Le

Moyne again among the Iroquois, 704 ; The Mohawks on the Kennebeck, 704;

Governor Breedon's Complaints, and Stuyvesant's Interposition, 704; Tracy

Viceroy of Canada, 705; Progress of Quakerism on Long Island, 705; Banish-

ment of Bowne, 706; The West India Company enjoins Toleration, and Perse-

cution ceases, 707; Terms offered to Puritans desiring to settle themselves on

the Raritan, 708; Connecticut enforces its Claims of Jurisdiction, 709; Earth-

quake, 709; Small-pox at Beverwyck, and non-intercourse Regulations of Con-

necticut, 710; New Village at Esopus; “Ronduit” on the Kill, 710; Wiltwyck

surprised by the Savages, 711 ; Expedition sent from New Amsterdam, 712; In-

vasion of the Esopus Country, and Destruction of Indian Forts on the Shawan-

gunk Kill, 712, 713; Party sent to the Sager's Kill, 713, 714; The South River

ceded to the City of Amsterdam, 714–716; Calvert at New Amstel and Altona,

717; Hinoyossa and Beeckman, 717; Stuyvesant visits Boston, and negotiates

with the Commissioners, 718; Difficulties on Long Island, 719; Dutch Commis-

sioners sent to Hartford, 720 ; Unsatisfactory Negotiation, 721 ; Act of Connecti-

cut respecting the West Chester and Long Island Towns, 722 ; Convention called

at New Amsterdam, 722; Remonstrance to the West India Company, 723; Names

of English Villages on Long Island changed, 723; Stuyvesant surrenders them

and West Chester to Connecticut, 723; English Party on the Raritan ; Purchase

of the Nevesinck Lands, 724; Baxter and Scott in London, 725 ; Scott on Long

Island, 726 ; Combination of English Villages ; Scott chosen President, 726 ; Con

ditional Arrangement at Jamaica, 727; Agreement between Stuyvesant and Scott,

728; General Provincial Assembly at New Amsterdam, 729; Charter of the West

India Company explained and confirmed by the States General, 730; Letters to

the Towns, 730; Arrival of Huguenots, 730 ; Treaty of Peace with the Esopus

Savages, 731 ; Beeckman Commissary at Esopus, 732 ; Settlement at Schaen-

hechstede, or Schenectady, 732; The Mohawks and the Abenaquis, 732 ; Ravages

of the Mahicans, and Alarm at Fort Orange, 733; Winthrop's Proceedings on

Long Island, 734; Stuyvesant still hopeful, 734 ; Royal Patent to the Duke of

York and Albany, 735; Royal Commissioners, 736 ; Colonel Richard Nicolls dis-

patched with a Squadron to surprise New Netherland, 736 ; Grant of New Jersey,

736; Preparations to defend New Amsterdam, 736; Stuyvesant goes to Fort Or-

ange, 737; Royal Commissioners at Boston, 737; Squadron anchors in Nyack

Bay, 738; Manhattan summoned to surrender, 739; Stuyvesant tears Nicolls's

Letter, 739; Ships anchor before Fort Amsterdam, 740; Condition of the City,

741; Capitulation agreed to, 742; Surrender of New Amsterdam, 742; Nicolls pro-

claimed Governor; his opinion of the City called “New York,” 743 ; Surrender

of Fort Orange; named Fort Albany, 744; Reduction of the South River, 744;

New York, Albania, and Yorkshire named, 745 ; Review ; Character and Influ-

ence of the Founders of New York, 745-750.






In the beginning of the seventeenth century, moment- Chap. I. ous events, which had been agitating Europe, led the way to the permanent colonization of the northern regions of tion. America. The art of printing had gradually diffused the learning of the cloister through the marts of commerce ; a venerable but abused faith no longer shackled emancipated mind;. a recent inductive philosophy was teaching mankind to seek the fruits of careful experiment; and an irrepressible spirit of adventure, growing with the progress of knowledge, prompted enterprise in the New World which the genius of Columbus had given to the Old.

The immortal Genoese, who, in those late years fore- 1492. told at Rome, had verified the sublime prophecy of Seneca, and made the ocean reveal the long-mysterious earth beyond the furthest Thule, had worked out his grand demonstration in the service of Spain. By her the splendid prize was claimed. But Portugal, having already explored the Azores, boldly asserted a superior right. The question was referred to the Pope; and Alexander the Papal donaSixth decided that the sovereigns of Spain should hold, New World as a gift in perpetuity, all the heathen lands found or 1493. to be discovered to the west of a meridian, one hundred 4th May. leagues westward of the Azores. The apostolic decree did


tion of the

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and French

Ckap. I. not satisfy Portugal; and it was agreed that the line of

partition should be advanced two hundred and seventy 1493.

leagues further to the west. Still, nearly all the New World remained actually included in the papal donation to Spain.*

But the Pontiff's sweeping grant was not universally respected. Leaving Spain and Portugal to push their con

quests in the rich and sultry regions of the south, England discoveries. and France commenced an early rivalry in exploring the

rugged and picturesque territories of the north. Disrea garding the edict of the Vatican, almost simultaneously they began their grand career of transatlantic enterprise. While the Cabots, under commissions of Henry the Seve

enth, after discovering Newfoundland, sailed along the 1497-8. continent, from Labrador to the parallel of Gibraltar, and, 1517. in a succeeding reign, perhaps entered the Arctic Seas

westward of Greenland, the fishermen of Normandy visit: 1504. ed Cape Breton, and made rude charts of the great gulf 1506. within; and Verazzano, under a commission of Francis Verazzano. the First, coasting northward from the Carolinas, explored, 1524. with his boat, the most beautiful” Bay of New York,

and anchored awhile in the very excellent harbor" of Newport. But, though plans of colonization were suggested in England and France, permanent occupation was


* Hazard's Historical Collections, i., 3-6 ; Chalmers's Political Annals, 10; Herrera, 1., 2, 10 ; Irving's Columbus, i., 185–200 ; Prescott's Ferd. and Isab., ii., 116, 174, 181; Thorne, in Hakluyt's “Divers Voyages,” &C., 43-47, reprinted by the Hakluyt Society of London, 1850.

+ Verazzano thus describes the Narrows, and the Bay of New York: “After proceeding one hundred leagues, we found a very pleasant situation among some steep hills, through which a very large river, deep at its mouth, forced its way to the sea. From the sea to the estuary of the river, any ship heavily laden might pass, with the help of the tide, which rises eight feet. But as we were riding at anchor in a good berth, we would not venture up in our vessel, without a knowledge of the mouth ; therefore we took the boat, and entering the river, we found the country on its banks well peopled, the inhabitants not differing much from the others, being dressed out with the feathers of birds of various colors. They came toward us with evident delight, raising loud shouts of admiration, and showing us where we could most securely land with our boat. We passed up this river about half a league, when we found it formed a most beautiful lake, three leagues in circuit, upon which they were rowing thirty or more of their small boats, from one shore to the other, filled with multitudes who came to see us. All of a sudden, as is wont to happen to navigators, a violent contrary wind blew in from the sea, and forced us to return to our ship, greatly regretting to leave this region, which seemed so commodious and delightful, and which we supposed must also contain great riches, as the hills showed many indications of minerals.". Letter to King Francis I., of July 8, 1524, translated by Mr. Cogswell, in N. Y. H. S. Coll., i. (second series), 45, 46.

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