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thing in us as the cause of it. For the adverb dwpea's
freely signifies this: not so much hinting here, that
justification is a free gift, as the Apostle calls it Rom.
5. 16 (for that the following words denote, rõ äurde
seapoto by bis grace), as that there is nothing in us, by
which to obtain it. The greek word dapíàn, freely,
answers to the Hebrew 377, that is without a cause,
which, in that case is found to be false and feigneds
as Pf. 69. 43 DIN ’NIW, they that hate me without
a cause, which is the same thing as, pw J'x, my lying
enemies. The former is translated by the septuagint,
or Greek interpreters, mošiles uà Supeáis

. Just as John
15. 25, ériíonpár pie dupsáv, they hated me without a cause:
In like manner, Pf. 35. 7, N, Superáv, without a cause
bave they bid for me their net in a pite Where dupeán
does not signify any donation or gift, but the abfo-
lute denial of any cause, which could render a man
deserving of such treatment. When the Apostle
therefore says, we are justified dupear, he freely teaches
us, that there is nothing in us, upon which to found
the gracious sentence of our justification, or for which
we can be justified. Excellently well, says the Greek
fcholiait, δωρεάν, τετεςιν ανεν σων καθορθωμάλων, freely, that is,

without any merit in thee. Nothing

- XLII. And this reason may be added, that noavails in thing can avail, in the business of justification, but justifica- what is entirely perfect, and can answer the law of tion, but

God in all things. For, in justification, there is a
what is

declaration of the righteousness of God, Rom. 3. 25, 26.
But that requires the righteousness of the law to be ful-
filled, Rom. 8. 4. The righteoulness of the law can-
not be fulfilled, but by a perfect obedience. Chry-
Softom Speaks fincly on this place, what is righteousness?
It is the end, the scope, the righteous action. For, what
does the law want, what, does it always command ? To
be without sin. But no person pretends to this, but
the presumptuous and the liar, i John 1. 8. We
therefore conclude, that a finner cannot be justified
by any act of his own.


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XLIII. The Form of juftification consists in these The form two acts. ift, The discharging of unrighteousness. Of juftif

cation 2: The adjudging of righteousness. XLIV. Unrighteousness or sin has a double power

Sin has a

double over the finner. ift. A power of condemnation.

power 2dly. A power of dominion.

The law defends both over the thele. powers: the former, by declaring him, who finner, fins, to be guilty of death, Rom. 1. 32. The other, both by giving up the conquered, by a júlt

sentence, to the which the conqueror; 2 Pet. 2. 19.

Wherefore it is said, fends. that the law is the strength of fin, 1 Cor. 15. 56. Because sin has its power from the law, which pronounces the finner accursed, and the servant of corruption. Nay, the most holy law of God itself, is called by Paul the law of fin and of death, Rom. 8. 2... Not as if it allowed of any sin, much less commanded it; but because, by its righteous sentence, it gives up the sinner and his children to sin, that it may týranise over them as unworthy of the life of God both in holiness and glory. Now sin does this, both by pushing the finner on to farther degrees of wickedness, and by haftening and aggravating his condemnation. Who can doubt but all these things are justly determined by God against the finner? Why should not then this sentence, which is found-, ed on the law of the covenant of works, be called å law? And feeing sin exercises, according to this law, a dominion over the finner, and condemns him to death, very appositely and emphatically has Paul called it the law of fin and death. Sin therefore, in the judgment of God, insists upon two things against the finner, that it may condemn him, and for ever have dominion over him; and alledges for itself the righteous law of God. And indeed the law, as long as fatisfaction is not made to it, cannot, in this action, or process, condemn fin, that is silence, or extenuate its accusation, lay aside its claim, and pronounce it partial or unjust. Vol. II,


XLV. Buc

1 2


But after XLV. But now the fatisfaction of Christ being satisfac

substituted and apprehended by faith, by which the tion made to the law whole righteousness of the law is fulfilled, the man by Chrift

, is then justified, and sin condemned, both its fin is strip- claims being rejected. God declares, ift. That ped of

there is no condemnation to them, who are in powers.

Christ Jesus, that all their sins are pardoned, and that none of them shall avail to condemnation; because the surety has, in the fullest manner, undergone the punishment due to them. And in that respect, forgiveness of sin is called justification, Rom. 4. 6. 7. 2dly. That fin shall no longer reign in their mortal body; for since Christ did also, of his own accord, subject himself to those laws, which were the hand-writing of sin; they are no longer under the law of Gn, but under grace, Rom. 6. 14. This justifying sentence of man, and condemning sentence of sin are founded on the same law of God, which, if the satisfaction of Christ be set aside, is the law of fin and death; but if that fatisfaction be supposed, it is the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus delivering man with a liberal hand. For, after Christ has once obeyed in the likeness of sinful flesh for the elect, God declares, that every thing was done, which sin could possibly demand, according to the law, and pronounces a sentence of liberty from fin to those, who by faith receive this grace of the Lord Christ, both with respect to its condemning, and domineering power, as the Apostle Rom. 8. 1, 2, 3, divinely illus

trates. Freedom

XLVI. This deliverance from the guilt and from fin, dominion of fin has, indeed, an indiffoluble connecdoes not, tion with happiness; therefore they, whose iniquities on that

are forgiven, are declared blessed, Rom. 4. 7; neveraccount, give a

theless this alone is not sufficient to happiness. For right to he, who now is set free from sin, has not immediately life.

a right to life: as is manifest in Adam while innocent, who, as long as he continued such, had no condemnation to fear, nevertheless had not yet


acquired a right to eternal life. It is therefore necessary, that that right be also adjudged to man in justification. Which God does on account of a perfect obedience, agreeably to that promise of the law, the man, that doth thase things, hall live in them, Lev. 18. 5. But what Christ has done for his people, they are accounted, as we have already often faid, to have done in their own person. And in this manner, grace reigneth through righteousness unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ our Lord. Rom. 5,



XLVII. The MEAN, by which we receive the Faith a. righteousness of Christ, and justification depending lone the thereon, is FAITH, and that only. For, if there mean, by

which we was any thing besides faith, it would be our own works, proceeding from the other christian virtues, hend But Paul will have them entirely excluded, Gal. 2. 16, Christ's knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the righteousa

ress, low, but by the faith of Jesus Christ even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law : for, by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified. Rom. 3. 28, therefore we conclude, that a man is justified by faith without the deeds, of the law. All the christian virtues or graces are contained in these two, faith. and love, which comprehend every affection of a pious foul. It is the property of love to give up and Difer oneself and all he has to God; of faith to receive and accept of God freely giving himself to

And therefore faith alone is adapted to receive and appropriate the righteousness of Christ, on account of which we are justified. And this is a truch so certain and clear, that not a few of the doctors of the school of Rome, and they the principal and of greatest reputation among thein, have acknowledged it, from the very fame passages of scripture, which we have advanced. Titelmannus in his paraphrase on Gal. 2, fays, we then firinly believe, that none can be justificd before God by the works of the law, but

I 2



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ONLY BY FAITH in Chrift. Eftius in like manner: it is evident, that the particle but is in scripture often taken adversatively, to denote BUT ONLY; adding, that all the interpreters, both Greek and Latin, agree in this interpretation, and that it is gathered from what follows, and from Rom. 3. 28. Sasbout is also express to the same purpose, who maintains, that Paul's expression is an hebraisın, and that, according to the Hebrews, the negative particle not is to be repeated from what went before. A man is not justified by works, not but by faith. And he adds : if you ask, whether it may be rightly concluded from that proposition, a man is not justified but by faith, therefore we are justified by FAITH ALONE? We are to say, it may. A little after he adds ; in this our day the catholick writers can, on no account, bear that propofition, imagining that there is poison concealed in that particle only, and therefore to be disused. Yet the ancients had no such aversion to that particle, nor Thomas Aquinas: if any, Says be, were righteous under the old law, they were not righteous by the works of the law, but only by the faith of Fefus Christ. Paul's true meaning is, not unless by faith, that is, by no merits of

Thus Sasbout on Gal. 2. 16. This faith

XLVIII. But we are farther to enquire, how faith not the ob-justifies. Not certainly in that sense, as if God

graciously accepts the act of faith, and new gospel Gospel obedience flowing therefrom in the room of the precepts, perfect obedience, which, from the rigour of the

law, we were bound to perform in order to justi

fication: as the Socinians, and Curcelleus, who imithe perfect'tates them in this respect explain it ; understanding obedience by faith the observance of the precepts of the Gospel, required which God has prescribed by Christ. For this is to by the lay.

make void the whole Gospel. The Gospel has not substituted our faith, but Christ's obedience, by which the righteousness of the law is fulfilled, in the room of that perfect obedience, which the law required in order to juítification. It is also false,


our own.

of the

nor comes in the

place of

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