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and mixt, more rare and sparing than afterwards, and mixed
with much with much terror. The legal economy was then

in its vigour: as the covenant of grace was revealed
more obscurely, and in much enigmatical darkness,
so likewise it was not intimated to the conscience
with such evidence of demonstration : a hand-writing,
in the mean time, was also required to be renewed by
the blood of daily facrifices, as by fo many subscrip-
tions; a thirst after better promises was raised, tho?
not yet to be quenched: by these means, those noble
operations of the spirit were so clouded in most, that,

in comparison of the joyful abundance under the the Spirit New Testament, the spirit is said, John 7. 39, nge is said not

to have been under the Old. This is not to be unbeen un- derstood in such a restricted sense, as to make us iinader the O. gine, that the extraordinary gifts of the Spirit, pour:

ed out on the day of Pentecost, are here only intendment.

ed. For, something is promised, which is common
to all believers in Christ, and which is said not to
have been, before Christ was gloriñed. But what is
that? It is the full and illustrious exhibition of the
Spirit, which Christ deferred, till he took solemn pof-
fession of his kingdom, and which appeared in those
visible gifts, as in so many mirrors, which is also to
be extended to the gracious fruits of Adoption : as

Calvin has well observed on this place.
And at

XI. And indeed, we often find in Scripture, that lngth

the Holy Spirit is fo promised to the New Testament, promised as if there was no such thing under the Old, lje. 35Wider the 6; 7; and 44. 3. Ezek. 34, 26, 27. Joel 2:28. Zech. New.

14. 8, compared with Ezek. 47.1----All which things
belong to the times of the Mefiah's kingdom, now
manifested in the world. To this also we are to refer,
what y bn the Bapt it said of Christ, Mat. 3. 11, that
he would baptize the children of Abraham with the
Holy Ghost and with fire. For, seeing the Baptist speaks
this not to the Apostles, but to the Jews, that flock-
ed to hear him; that miraculous effufion of the gifts
of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles, which our Lord


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himself calls a baptism, seems not to be denoted,
only but also that fanctifying grace of the Spirit,
which had, and exerted a fiery efficacy on the
hearts of believers, by penetrating, illuminating,
serting on fire, purging, separating + the drofs
from the pure gold, or the precious from the evil
and by elevating and transforming the object en-
flamed into its own nature: and with this passage it
feems we should by all means compare what is said,
Fja. 4. 4, when the Lord shall have washed away the
filth of the daughters of Zion, anifall have purged the
blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof, by the spirit
of judgment, and by the Spirit of burning. Moreover,
that extraordinary work, which was wrought in the
Apostles, contained the first fruits and earnest of the
fulfilment of thegeneralpromises concerning the Spirit,
as appears from the application of the prophesy of
Joel, and Peter's explication of it, Acts 2: 28, 39.
Chryfoftom therefore observes well, Homil. it, that

Fobn, by this expeffion, signified the abundance, the
vehemence and the irrejtibleness of grace.

XII. As these things were promised, so they were To which also fulfilled under the New Testament. For, the a larger Spirit of God then produced a clearer manifestation of share was the covenant of grace, a higher sense of divine love,

granted. a more delightful freedom of the kingdom of God, à more confident boldness, more abundant consolations, a stronger assurance, more fpiritual holiness, and who can pretend to recite all? This will appear, if we make a just comparison of heroes with heroes, and of more ordinary believers with others of the faine kind; 'according to the prophesy of Zech. 12. 8. See Tit. 3. 5,6.

+ I confess this does not come up to the full force of the author's words, which are seperando beterogenea ab bomogeneis, tho' they express his general meaning.

XIII. Mean

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And at XIII. Mean while, we are to observe, that, in the firft great-beginning of the New Testament, God distributed

much more plentifully to believers, than frequently afterwards. Certainly, nothing can be spoken with greater pomp of language, than what Paul often declared concerning himself, and other believers in his

day. For, as to .confolation and tranquillity of foul, 1. As to

what can be more excellent, than what he assured consola- the Philippians, even peace which passeth all understandtion,

ing, Phil. 4.7. Agreeable to this is what Peter writes; that they who love Christ and believe in him, rejoice with joy unspeakable and glorious, full of glory. 1 Pet. I. 8. And what John also says, that perfeet love, such as is produced by the Gospel, casteth out all fear, 1 John 4. 18. And really it seems evident, that, in a peace so noble and serene, in a joy almost so incredible, there

can be no room for any unruly paffion, fear or trembling. 2. As to

XIV. And then, the Apostle gives such excellent holiner

encomiums of their holiness, as may be judged very far to transcendent the measure of our days : when he thus declares concerning himself, that he was cruci. fied with Christ, that he did no longer live, but Christ lived in him; as if his spirit and life, like that of an inferior order, were swallowed up in the more illustrious spirit and life of Christ, as the sun in the heavens extinguishes the light of the stars; and all the life, he lived, flowed from no other principle, but the faith and love of the Son of God, Gol, 2. 20. Nay, he openly declares his contempt of all the things, which other men so highly value, and that he prizes Christ alone, and that, forgetting the things which are behind, he presses forwards with a large pace, and a most speedy course to perfection, Pbil. 3. 7, 8, 14. Who of us will deny, that he does not * come far short of these high attainments ?

XV. The Apostle every where openly professed an hope and incredible hope and cjurance of the future inheritance: assurance. and he undoubtedly describes his affurance, towards

the clofe of the eighth chapter to the Romans, in such magnificent language, that nothing more emphati



3. As to

cally strong can be conceived. Let that animated gloriation in the Lord bę attentively read, and we thall fee, that it sets forth, in an extraordinary pomp of words, the inmense abundance of the Spirit inhabiting his noble breast, and the sparkling fames of the love of God kindled in his heart. He also clearly displays his hope, 2 Cor. 5. 1, 2. 2 Tim. 4. 8. Pbil. 1. 23, whereby he was so far from fearing death, at the mention of which most people are ready to tremble for fear, that, on the contrary, he embraced it with open arms, and longed to be dissolved, that he might have the more full enjoyment of Christ.

XVI. Indeed, if any one shall compare these mag. God difnificent expressions, with what is observed among be- pensing lievers at this day, he will be obliged to own, that


things they come far short of that eminence and excellence; freely. they are fo mean, poor and fading, in comparison of these unparallelled expressions, which, with astonishment we admire in the Apostle. But doubtless the Spirit bloweth when, how, and where he listeth : it does not become us, to set bounds to him. In the beginning of the Gospel God fhewed, what he can do, and what on the other hand, he will do, when he Shall restore life, as it were, from the dead, Rom. . 1.5.?E$ix? itex Au Paid ; arise, arise, thou charming friendby fun! :) XVII. To this Spirit the Apostle principally The more

especial afcribes two effects, Rom. 8. 15, 16, the former of

effects of which is, the making us cry, Abba, father, the latter, the Spirit. that together with our Spirit, itself beareth witness, that we are the children of God: and as these two things contain the highest consolation, it will not be improper to explain them with all the accuracy, we are able.

XVIII. The Holy Spirit is never idle, where he is; It makes there the heart 3 17 in7 brings forth a good speech, us speak. Pf. 45. I. The Spirit is that mystical new mine, which makes the virgins chearful (eloquent), Zech. 9. 27; and caufeth the lips of those, that are asleep, to


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. Speak, Cant. 7. 9. They who have the Spirit of faith,

as they believe, so they speak, 2. Cor. 4. 13. And cry.

XIX. Nor do they only speak, muttering like the ventriloquists, who speak from the belly, or, like those, who scarce speak out what they have conceived in their mind, fear having restrained their faultering tongue ; but they confidently cry out with a loud voice. Nor is it in vain, that the Apostle both here and Gal. 4. 6, uses the term crying. It denotes that boldness, freedom, and courage, with which we are commanded to approach the throne of grace, Heb. 4. 16, and present our requests there.

XX. But what does he principally teach us to cry? Abba fa. ther. Abba father. Servants and hand-maids, of old were

not suffered to call their masters by the name of Father, as the very learned Selden, de Succeffionibus c. 4. has shewn from the law of the Hebrews. But the fervants and hand-maids of God, both under the Old and New Testament, are allowed this privilege; as was shewn above from Isa. 63. 26. Job. 34. 36 : To which I now add, Isa. 64. 8, and Jer. 3. 4. When Christ commanded his disciples to pray, Our father, which art in heaven, he used an expresion well known to, and very common among the Jews. Thus Maimonides in Tephilloth D'AVIV WIN, our father, who art in beoven, so deal with us, as thou haft promised by

the prophets. Emphasis XXI. And the doubling of words, Abba father, of that in both here and in the Epistle to the Galatians, is very gemina- emphatical. The former being of Hebrew, and the

latter of a Greek original. Did not the Apostle, by this, intend to teach us, that, under the influence of the Spirit, God 'was now to be called Father, by believers of whatever nation, or in whatever language? For, the reason of this repetition, seems here to be different from that in Mark chap. 14. 36; where we have a summary of Christ's prayers, and the latter may be imagined to be added by Mark, as an explanation of the former. For, Christ spoke not in


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