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the patriarchs (or representatives] both of the old and New Testament church, fitting on so many thrones,

* Rev. 4.2, 4. Which XXIV. Nor are we to doubt, but this was Christ's Chriftpro meaning, when he said to the penitent thief: verily I the thief. Jay unto thee, to day thou shalt be with me in paradise

. Luke 23. 43. These words are an exact answer to the petition of the thief, who prayed that Chrift would remember him: Christ answers, I will not only remember thee, as absent, but promise that thou shall be in my presence in everlasting glory: thou halt be with me. The thief fixed the time, in which he desired his petition inight be granted, viz saben thou comest - Cunto thy kingdon. Christ informed him not only of the

place, where he was to reign, which he calls Paradise, that is, the third beavens, comparę 2 Cor. 12. 2, 4, A very common way of speaking among the jews, who place the souls of the godly deceased 11y117 in the garden of Eden'; but alfo of the time, in which he was to enter on his kingdom, TO DAY: and it was about the foxth hour, the noon of the day, before the expirations of which, the death of both interveening, that our Lord promised him these joys. But because such a fudden change of condition, seemed to be strange and almost incredible, Christ confirms his promise by an afleveration, + AMEN verily. These things are plain. Whereas, on the other hand, the interpretations of our adversaries are strained and foolish. They imagine the words may be thus pointed or diftinguished, I say unto thee to day, thou shalt be with me in -paradise; as if Christ did not fix the time, when the thief was to be with him in paradise, but only declared the truth of what he promised. And they refer to Deut. 30. 11, 15, 17, 18, where Moses says, 1 command thee this day &c. But how weak is this? For


+ I the Amen, who am truth itself, infallibly affure thee, that what I fay unto thee thall come to pass this day.

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ist, The chief could not be ignorant of the time, when Chirist aid this to hin; he did not want to have that inculcated: 2dly. - It is not our Lords faying to day, but his saying Amen, verily, that declares the truth of the promise. 3dly. To dey denotes'a time, sis ba?. and answers to the t when, which was in the petition outfitney of the chief. Athly: Maldonat himself toeks upon this expolition as insipid and weak: Bellarinin ad counts it ridiculous, from the fame arguments almost with outs." See Riveti Catholicus Orthodoxůs, quæft. 60. 5thly. The phraseology of Moses is of a diferent nature, I command thee this day; I denounce unto you this dey: *for besides, that the words there cannot be otherwife construed, here they both may and ought Moses there prophesies of things, that were to come to pafs afterwards, and would have the Ifraelites mindful of that time, in which he had foretold them in such a pathetical protestation ; and therefore this day or to day, has a remarkable emphasis in the discourse of Mofes; but renders the discourse of Christ, if con ftrued as our adverfaries would have it; weak and infipid. Moreover, what they contend for, that the thief understood by Christ's coming into his kingdom, his coming to judge the' quick and the dead, is afferted without any proof, nor will they ever be able to prove itHe had certainly been mistaken, if he imagined, that Christ's kingdom was to be deferred to the last day. Christ had reigned long before, notwithstanding kingdom is fo far from beginning at the last day, that Paul declares, he will then deliver up the kingdom to the father. 1 Cor. 15. 24. But a grosser impiety, than any christian could well be imagined guilty of, is what the heretic subjoins : that, from all these things, there is not the leejt pretence to conclude, THAT CHRIST,

+ Lord rememember me, WHEN, thou comeft into thy kingdom.

ofi that Nunc tantum finus, et ftatio malefida carinis. Dzon 983

otber men live after death. These things are blaf-
phemous, and cannot be either read or heard without

horror.. And the , XXV. Let us add Luke 16. 22, and Lazarus was parable of carried by the Angels into Abraham's bosom. It is the Lazarus

general opinion of the Jews, that God uses the teaches.

ministry of Angels in carrying home the souls of the pious. Thus they relate concerning Mofes; that when the moment of his death was come, God said to Gabriel hwn yw imati XIMN* go and bring me the foul of Moses.! And Christ confirms the opinion about the ministry of Angels by his own authority. But whither was the foul of Lazarus conveyed? Into Abraham's bosom. From which expreffion, it 'is certainly manifeft, that dhe place and state of the blessed are understood, from the opposition to the place and state of the miserable, in which the rich man was. But the learned are not agreed about the derivation of that metaphor." Some think, that this present life is compared to a tempestuous fea, the condition of the pious, foul after death to a calm haven, signified by the term, bofom. Thus in Virgil:

It is now only a bofom, or bay, and an unsafe barbour : And James Capellus has observed, that what the Latines called navem appellere, to bring a fhip to land the Greek's express by renassv ; from which Eustathius remarks is derived xoXmos a bolom, or bay, which is the 'word, that Like uses here. But Ludov. Capellus thinks, that the bosom of Abraham is an expression borrowed from the custom of parents, who cherish their dear infants in their borom, in which they allo sometimes sweetly rest and sleep: just as the godly are said to Deep, when they die, and to rest from imeir labours: but where can they be said more pro.


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Abraham, Martyr has with

perly to rest and sleep, than in the botom of Abrabam
their spiritual father? For confirming this interpre-

tation, we may add, that little ones, thus tenderly bois

treated, are called by the Greekseynol.gida Brioni children booties
in the bosom ; see allo John. 1. 18, the only begotten Son,
which is in the bofom of the father, that is, who is most
intimate and familiar with, and extraordinarily beloved
by the father. But, if I mistake not, they explain
this expression best, whọ think, that here, as also,
Mat. 8. 11, and often elsewhere, eternal happinefs
is represented under the funilicude of laine fplendid
and lumptuous fealt. For, it was customary, that
whoever of the guests was allowed to lean on the boa
fom of the matter of the entertainment, was account:
ed the most hanpurable person. Thus John 13. 23
there was leaning on his boform are when Jesus loved .
Moreover, there is no doubt, but the Jews ascribed

to Abraham, the father of the Gentiles, the principal
place among the righteous. Here, then is denoted
che very great honour conferred on Lazarus, who, in
that bleffed abode, was placed next to Abraham
Sée Cameron and Grotius on the place. I conclude in
the words of Augustine, lib. 2. de Origine Anime, c. 4
Was you then fo very ignorant of this sound and very
wholesome article of faith, that souls are judged upon their
departure out of the body,

before they come to that other judgment, in which they must be judged, at the restitution of their bodies, and that they are either tormented, or glorified, in that very few, in which they lived? Who has with such obstinacy of mind been so deaf to the Gospel

, as not to hear, and, upon bearing, not to believe these things, in the instance of that peor man, who, Cafier death, was carried into Abraham's bofom, and in that of the rich man, who was configned to eternal torment? What the opinion of the Ancients was congreat learning explained at large, Claffis Tertia Loc. 16. 8. 7. seq.

XXVI. When

Y 3

That souls XXVI. When we afcribe'to separate Touls, not change oply a change of stare, ibuo alfo of place, and new to be'un habitations or manfions, we speak agreeable to the derstood. Scriptures, which allign mansions and a place to heaven,

Joku :14; 2, 3, and everlasting habitations; Luke 16.9. and a koule, c 2 Cor. 5. 11, 2. Yet we do not think, that fouls are in a place in the fame manner, that bodies are unor do we conceive, that they consist of fotne very fubtile corpuscles, whose particles are commenfurate to the parts of the space, in which they axe includedal. The very learned Parker, de descenju ed'inferos, p. 106, 107, has given undoubred testi, monies, that a great many of the Ancients were of this opinion. But we think that not only with respect to their external operations, but even as to their subfiance, theyrare in that part of the created world, where Christ is bodily presentz so as not to be on the earthed We distinguish the effence of the soul, which is a spiritual and immaterial fubftance, from all its operations whatever, whether internal or exa ternal, as an agent is distinguished from its action. Nor do we only enquire about the actions of the foul, in what place they may be exerted, but also about its fubftance, in what place it may,exift.. Seeing it ceases not altogether to be, it ought to be fomewhere and as it is not infinite, it cannot be every where it is therefore in some place ; for in stance, in foine part of heaven, or of hell, notindeed locally, as if it had parts commensurate

rate to the

the parts of space; but in a way suitable to a fpiritual nature, so that while it is in this place, it cannot be in another. Nor is it in this place, because it ope, rates therein, but on the contrary, operates in this, and in no other place, because it exists in this place. Hence, the presence of the foul, as to its fubitance, is, in order of nature, prior to its presence as to its operation. And when the Scripture aserts, that louls are in heaven, we are to understand that of their



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