Page images

of converted Indians." The bull ex- new effect to the doctrines, the discitended the prohibition generally to the pline, and the power of Rome. The monkish orders, to avoid branding law which forbids the admission of the Jesuits especially. But a bull of Jesuits into England, has shared the more direct reprehension was publish- fate of all laws feebly administered ; ed at the close of the year, expressly and Jesuits are active by hundreds or against the Jesuits in their missions by thousands in every portion of the in the east and west. The language of empire. They have restored the whole this document amounts to a catalogue original system, sustained by all their of the most atrocious offences against habitual passion for power, and urging society, humanity, and morals. By their way, with all their ancient subthis bull, “ all men, and especially tlety, through all ranks of ProtestantJesuits,” are prohibited, under penalty ism. of excommunication, from “ making The courage and intelligence of slaves of the Indians ; from selling Pombal placed him in the foremost and bartering them ; from separating rank of Europe, when the demand them from their wives and children ; was the boldest and most essential from robbing them of their property; service which a great minister could from transporting them from their offer to his country; he broke the native soil,” &c.

power of Jesuitism. But an order Nothing but the strongest necessity, so numerous—for even within the life and the most ample evidence, would of its half-frenzied founder it amounted ever have drawn this condemnation to 19,000—so vindictive, and flung from from Rome, whether sincere or in- so lofty a rank of influence, could not sincere. But the urgencies of the perish without some desperate attempts case became more evident from day to revenge its ruin. The life of Pomto day. In 1758, the condemnation bal was so constantly in danger, that was followed by the practical mea- the king actually assigned him a body sure of appointing Cardinal Saldanha guard. But the king himself was exvisitor and reformer of the Jesuits in posed to one of the most remarkable Portugal, and the Portuguese settle- plots of regicide on record—the mements in the east and west.

morable Aveiro and Tavora conspiracy. Within two months of this appoint- On the night of the 3d of Septemment the following decree was issued : ber 1758, as the king was returning

_" For just reasons known to us, to the palace at night in a cabriolet, and which concern especially the ser- attended only by his valet, two men vice of God and the public welfare, on horseback, and armed with blunwe suspend from the power of con- derbusses, rode up to the carriage, and fessing and preaching, in the whole leveled their weapons at the monarch. extent of our patriarchate, the fathers One of them missed fire, the other of the Society of Jesus, from this mo. failed of its effect. The royal postiment, and until further notice." Sal- lion, in alarm, rushed forward, when danha had been just raised to the two men, similarly waiting in the road, patriarchate.

galloped after the carriage, and both We have given some observations fired their blunderbusses into it beon this subject, from its peculiar im- hind. The cabriolet was riddled with portance to the British empire at this slugs, and the king was wounded in moment. The order of the Jesuits, several places. By an extraordinary extinguished in the middle of the last presence of mind, Don Joseph, instead century by the unanimous demand of of ordering the postilion to gallop onEurope, charged with every crime ward, directed him instantly to turn which could make a great association back, and, to avoid alarming the palace, obnoxious to mankind, and exhibiting carry him direct to the house of the the most atrocious violations of the

court surgeon.

By this fortunate common rules of human morality, has, order, he escaped the other groups of within this last quarter of a century, the conspirators, who were stationed been revived by the papacy, with the further on the road, and under whose express declaration, that its revival is repeated discharges he would profor the exclusive purpose of giving bably have fallen.

The public alarm and indignation family of the Marquis of Tavora, himon the knowledge of this desperate self, his two sons, his four brothers, atrocity were unbounded. There and his two sons-in-law. Other nobles seemed to be but one man in the were also seized ; and the Jesuits kingdom who preserved his compo- were forbidden to be seen out of their sure, and that one was Pombal. Ex- houses. hibiting scarcely even the natural per- The three months of Pombal's apturbation at an event which had parent inaction had been incessantly threatened almost a national convul- employed in researches into the plot. sion, he suffered the whole to become Extreme caution was evidently nea matter of doubt, and allowed the cessary, where the criminals were king's retirement from the public eye among the highest officials and nobles, to be considered as merely the effect seconded by the restless and formiof accident. The public despatch of dable machinations of the Jesuits. Mr Hay, the British envoy at Lisbon, When his proofs were complete, he alludes to it, chiefly as assigning a rea- crushed the conspirators at a single son for the delay of a court mourning grasp. His singular inactivity had --the order for this etiquette, on the disarmed them; and nothing but the death of the Spanish queen, not hav- most consummate composure could ing been put in execution. The envoy have prevented their flying from jusmentions that it had been impeded by tice. On the 12th of January 1759, the king's illness,—“it being the cus- they were found guilty; and on the tom of the court to put on gala when 13th they were put to death, to the any of the royal family are blooded. number of nine, with the Marchioness When I went to court to enquire after of Tavora, in the square of Belem. his majesty's health, I was there in- The scaffold and the bodies were burnformed that the king, on Sunday night ed, and the ashes thrown into the sea. the 3d instant, passing through a Those were melancholy acts; the gallery to go to the queen's apart- works of melancholy times. But as ment, had the misfortune to fall and no human crime can be so fatal to the bruise his right arm; he had been blood- security of a state as regicide, no ed eight different times; and, as his imputation can fall on the memory of majesty is a fat bulky man, to pre- a great minister, compelled to exervent any humours fixing there, his cise justice in its severity, for the physicians have advised that he should protection of all orders of the kingnot use his arm, but abstain from dom. In our more enlightened period, business for some time. In conse- we must rejoice that those dreadful quence, the queen was declared regent displays of judicial power have passed during Dom Joseph's illness."

away; and that laws are capable o This was the public version of the being administered without the torevent. But appended to the despatch tures, or the waste of life, which was a postscript, in cipher, stating the agonize the feelings of society. Yet, reality of the transaction. Pombal's while blood for blood continued to be sagacity, and his self-control, perhaps the code ; while the sole prevention of a still rarer quality among the pos- crime was sought for in the security sessors of power, were exhibited in the of judgment; and while even the zeal strongest light on this occasion. For of justice against guilt was measured three months not a single step appear by the terrible intensity of the puned to be taken to punish, or even to ishment-we must charge the horror detect the assassins. The subject of such sweeping executions to the was allowed to die away; when, on ignorance of the age, much more than the 9th of December, all Portugal was to the vengeance of power. startled by a royal decree, declaring This tragedy was long the subject the crime, and offering rewards for of European memory; and all the exthe seizure of the assassins. Some travagance of popular credulity was days afterwards Lisbon heard, with let loose in discovering the causes of astonishment, an order for the arrest the conspiracy. It was said, in the of the Duke of Aveira, one of the first despatches of the English minister, nobles, and master of the royal that the Marquis of Tavora, who had household ; the arrest of the whole been Portuguese minister in the

East, was irritated by the royal at labour, and an apoplectic tendency tentions to his son's wife. Ambition threatened to shorten a life so essen. was the supposed ground of the Duke tial to the progress of Portugal; for of Aveira's perfidy. The old Mar- that whole life was one of temperate chioness of Tavora, who had been and progressive reform. His first once the handsomest woman at court, application was to the finances ; he and was singularly vain and haughty, found the Portuguese exchequer on was presumed to have received some the verge of bankruptcy. A third of personal offence, by the rejection of the taxes was embezzled in the colthe family claim to a dukedom. All lection. In 1761, his new system was is wrapped in the obscurity natural adopted, by which the finances were to transactions in which individuals restored ; and every week a balanceof rank are involved in the highest sheet of the whole national expendiorder of crime. It was the natural ture was presented to the king. His policy of the minister to avoid extend- next reform was the royal household, ing the charges by explaining the where all unnecessary expenses—and origin of the crime. The connexions they were numerous—were abolished. of the traitors were still many and Another curious reform will be longer powerful ; and further disclosures remembered in Portugal. The nation might have produced only further at- had hitherto used only the knife at tempts at the assassination of the dinner! Pombal introduced the fork. minister or the king.

He brought this novel addition to the It was now determined to act with table with him from England in 1745! vigour against the Jesuits, who were The nobility were remarkably igdistinctly charged with assisting, if norant. Pombal formed the “ College not originating, the treason.

A suc

of Nobles” for their express educacession of decrees were issued, depriv- tion. There they were taught every ing them of their privileges and pos- thing suitable to their rank. The only sessions; and finally, on the 5th of prohibition being, “ that they should October 1759, the cardinal patriarch not converse in Latin,” the old pedanSaldanha issued the famous mandate, tic custom of the monks. The nobles by which the whole society was ex- were directed to converse in English, pelled from the Portuguese dominions. French, Italian, or their native tongue; Those in the country were transported Pombal declaring, that the custom of to Civita Vecchia ; those in the colo- speaking Latin was only “to teach nies were also conveyed to the Papal them to barbarize." territory; and thus, by the intrepidity, Another custom, though of a more wisdom, and civil courage of one man, private order, attracted the notice of the realm was relieved from the pre- this. rational and almost universal sence of the most powerful and most improver. It had been adopted as a dangerous body which had ever dis- habit by the widows of the nobility, turbed the peace of society.

to spend the first years of their widowPortugal having thus the honour of hood in the most miserable seclusion; taking the lead, Rome herself at length they shut up their windows, retired followed ; and, on the accession of the to some gloomy chamber, slept on the celebrated Ganganelli, Clement XIV., floor, and, suffering all kinds of voluna resolution was adopted to suppress tary and absurd mortifications, forthe Jesuits in every part of the world. bade the approach of the world. As On the 21st of July 1773, the memo- the custom was attended with danger rable bull “ Dominus ac Redemptor," to health, and often with death, bewas published, and the order was at sides its general melancholy influence an end. The announcement was re- on society, the minister publicly ceived in Lisbon with natural rejoicing. "enacted,” that every part of it should Te Deum was sung, and the popular be abolished; and, moreover, that the triumph was unbounded and univer- widows should always remove to ansal.

other house; or, where this was not We now hasten to the close of this practicable, that they “ should not distinguished minister's career. His clo the shutters, nor mourn' for frame, though naturally vigorous, be- more than a week, nor remain at gan to feel the effects of his incessant home for more than a month, nor


sleep on the ground.” Doubtless, But Pombal had been too magnanitens of thousands thanked him, and mous for the court and nobles; and thank him still, for this war against the loss of his power as minister proa popular, but most vexatious, absur- duced a succession of intrigues against dity.

him, by the relatives of the Tavora His next reform was the army. family, and doubtless also by the After the peace of 1763, he fixed it at ecclesiastical influence, which has al30,000 men, whom he equipped effec- ways been at once so powerful and tually, and brought into practical dis- so prejudicial in Portugal. He was cipline.

insulted by a trial, at which, however, A succession of laws, made for the the only sentence inflicted was an promotion of European and colonial order to retire twenty leagues from trade, next opened the resources of the court. The Queen was, at that Portugal to an extent unknown be- time, probably suffering under the first fore. Pombal next abolished the access of that derangement, which, in "Index Expurgitorius”—an extraor- a few years after, utterly incapacitated dinary achievement, not merely be- her, and condemned the remainder of yond his age, but against the whole her life to melancholy and total solisuperstitious spirit of his age. He tude. But the last praise is not given was not content with abolishing to the great minister, while his perthe restraint; he attempted to restore sonal disinterestedness is forgotten. the PRESS in Portugal. Hitherto One of the final acts of his life was to nearly all Portuguese books had been present to the throne a statement of printed in foreign countries. He es- his public income, when it appeared tablished a “ Royal Press," and gave that, during the twenty-seven years its superintendence to Pagliarini, a of his administration, he had received Roman printer, who had been expa• no public emolument but his salary as triated for printing works against the secretary of state, and about L.100 Jesuits. Such, in value and extent, a-year for another office. But he was were the acts which Portugal owed to rich; for, as his two brothers rethis indefatigable and powerful mind, mained unmarried, their incomes that when, in 1766, he suffered a para- were joined with his own. He lived, lytic stroke, the king and the people held in high respect and estimation by were alike thrown into consternation. the European courts, to the great age

At length Don Joseph, the king, and of eighty-three, dying on the 5th of faithful friend of Pombal, died, after a May without pain. A long inscription, reign of twenty-seven years of honour yet in which the panegyric did not and usefulness. Pombal requested to exceed the justice, was placed on his resign, and the Donna Maria accepted tomb. Yet a single sentence might the resignation, and conferred various have established his claim to the permarks of honour upon him. He now petual gratitude of his country and retired to his country-seat, where mankindWraxall saw him in 1772, and thus describes his appearance.

" At this “ Here lies the man who banished the time he had attained his seventy-third

Jesuits from Portugal." year, but age seemed to have diminished neither the freshness nor the Mr Smith's volume is intelligently activity of his faculties. In his per- written, and does much credit to his son he was very tall and slender, his research and skill, face long, pale, and meagre, but full of intelligence."

[merged small][ocr errors]



"Have I not in my time heard lions roar?

Have I not heard the sea, puft up with wind,
Rage like an angry boar chafed with sweat?
Have I not heard great ordnance in the field,
And Heaven's artillery under in the skies?
Have I not in the pitched battle heard
Loud 'larums, neighing steeds, and trumpets clang?"


ELNATHAN was a man of many cares, and Parisian belles dancing cotillons in and every kind of wisdom, but one- the bowers and pavilions of a Mahothe wisdom of knowing when he had metan paradise, Elnathan spent the wealth enough. He evidently loved night at his desk, surrounded by his accumulation ; and the result was, bustling generation of clerks, writing that every hour of his existence was to correspondents at every point of one of terror. Half the brokers and the compass, and preparing insuchief traders in France were already rances with the great London estain prison ; and yet he carried on the blishments; which I was to carry with perilous game of commerce.

He was

me, though unacquainted with the known to be immensely opulent; and transaction on which so many millions he must have regarded the day which of francs hung trembling. passed over his head, without seeing His morning face showed me, that his strong boxes put under the go- whatever had been his occupation bevernment seal, and himself thrown fore I met him at the breakfast-table, into some oubliette, as a sort of it had been a most uneasy one.

His miracle. But he was now assailed powerful and rather handsome phyby a new alarm. War with England siognomy had shrunk to half the size; began to be rumoured among the his lips were livid, and his hand bearded brethren of the synagogue ; shook to a degree which made me ask, and Elnathan had ships on every sea,

whether the news from Robespierre from Peru to Japan. Like Shak- was unfavourable.

But his assuspeare's princely merchant

rance that all still went on well in that

delicate quarter, restored my tranquil“ His mind was tossing on the ocean, lity, which was beginning to give way; There where his argosies with portly and my only stipulation now was, that sail,

I should have an hour or two to spend Like signiors, and rich burghers of

at Vincennes before I took my final the flood.

departure. The Jew was all astonOr, as it were, the pageants of the

ishment; his long visage elongated sea, Did overpower the petty traffickers,

at the very sound; he shook his locks, As they flew by them with their

lifted up his large hands, and fixed woven wings.”

his wide eyes on me with a look of

mingled alarm and wonder, which The first shot fired would inevi.

would have been ludicrous if it had tably pour out the whole naval force

not been perfectly sincere. of England, and his argosies would 66 In the name of common sense, put their helms about, and steer for do you remember in what a country, Portsmouth, Plymouth, and every port and in what times, we live? Oh, but a French one. If this formidable

those Englishmen! always thinking intelligence had awakened the haughti- that they are in England. My young ness of the French government to a friend, you are clearly not fit for sense of public peril, what effect must

France, and the sooner you get out of it not have in the counting-house of a it the better." man whose existence was trade ?

I still remonstrated. While I was on my pillow, luxuriat, forget yesterday ?” he exclaimed. ing in dreams of French fêtes, Paul “Can you forget the man before whom and Virginia carried off to the clouds, we both stood ? A moment's hesita.

[ocr errors]

66 Do you

« PreviousContinue »