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ILLUSTRATED BY MAPS, TAKEN ENTIRELY FROM ACTUAL SURVEYS;

WITH NOTES,

CHIEFLY HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL,

BY

THOMAS ARNOLD, D.D.

LATE HEAD MASTER OF RUGBY SCHOOL, AND FORMERLY FELLOW

OF ORIEL COLLEGE, OXFORD.

THIRD EDITION,

VOL. I.

OXFORD:

Printed by T. Combe, Printer to the University, for

JOHN HENRY PARKER;
WHITTAKER AND CO. LONDON;

J. AND J. J. DEIGHTON, CAMBRIDGE.

MDCCCXLVIL

А A 2

1847

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

I

N this second edition most of the positive faults, which were

very numerous and some of them very glaring in the first volume of the first edition, have I hope been corrected. But the omissions and negative faults, of the existence of which I am well aware, I have not been equally able to make good : for the variety and depth of knowledge required in such an edition of Thucydides as should be worthy of his excellence, are far beyond my attainment. In the meanwhile it is cheering to see that we are beginning to set our standard higher than formerly ; for here, as in other matters, the more dissatisfied we are with our actual advance, the more likely is it that we shall in time advance farther. It will be strange if the establishment of steam vessels on the Mediterranean does not within the next ten years do more for the geography of Thucydides than has ever been done yet; for it will enable those who are at once scholars and geographers to visit the places of which he speaks personally; and I cannot but think that most of the difficulties of his descriptions will then vanish. To a practised eye the shortest view of a country will explain more than any maps or descriptions can do without it; if a man be also really familiar with the ancient writers, and has the state of the ancient world vividly present to his mind, so as to know what their warfare was, what their ships were, &c.; and not to be deriving all his notions from modern experience.—With respect to the text of Thu

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