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according afterwards ancient appear Aragon arms army authority became Burgundy called cause century character Charles chief cities citizens civil claim common consent considered constitution continued cortes council count court crown custom death dominions duke election electors emperor empire enemies England equal especially established Europe feudal fiefs Florence force formed former France Frederic French frequently gave Germany granted Guelf Henry imperial important independent Italian Italy John justice king kingdom lands Languedoc latter least less liberty Lombardy lord Louis means Milan military Naples natural never nobility nobles obtained original party perhaps persons Philip political pope possessed preserved princes principal privileges probably provinces reign rendered republic respect Roman royal says seems sometimes sovereign spirit succession territory tion took towns vassals writers
Page 137 - Gros, in order to create some power that might counterbalance those potent vassals who controlled, or gave law to the crown, first adopted the plan of conferring new privileges on the towns situated within his own domain.
Page 85 - It was a breach of faith to divulge the lord's counsel, to conceal from him the machinations of others, to injure his person or fortune, or to violate the sanctity of his roof and the honour of his family. In battle he was bound to lend his horse to his lord when dismounted ; to adhere to his side, while fighting; and to go into captivity as a hostage for him, when taken. His attendance was due to the lord's courts, sometimes to witness, and sometimes to bear a part in, the administration of justice.
Page 215 - ... to population, that vested sovereign power partly in a body of impoverished nobles, partly in an overruling despotism ; or to a practical system of government that made vice the ally of tyranny, and sought impunity for its own assassinations by encouraging dissoluteness of private life. Perhaps too the wisdom so often imputed to the senate in its foreign policy has been greatly exaggerated. The balance of power established in Europe, and above all in Italy, maintained for the two last centuries...
Page 311 - O prophet, I am the man : whosoever rises against thee, I will dash out his teeth, tear out his eyes, break his legs, rip up his belly. O prophet, I will be thy vizir over them.
Page 146 - The bulk of the people, it is true, were degraded by servitude; but this had no connection with the feudal tenures. The peace and good order of society were not promoted by this system. Though private wars did not originate in the feudal customs, it is impossible to doubt, that they were perpetuated by so convenient an institution, which indeed...
Page 38 - Their court was, as it were, the sun of that system, which embraced the valour and nobility of the Christian world ; and the respect which was felt for their excellences, while it drew many to their side, mitigated in all the rancour and ferociousness of hostility. This war was like a great tournament, where the combatants fought indeed a...
Page 10 - The victory of Charles Martel has immortalized his name, and may justly be reckoned among those few battles of which a contrary event would have essentially varied the drama of the world in all its subsequent scenes ; with Marathon, Arbela, the Metaurus, Chalons, and Leipsic.