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you. Fare

Did not

And given his deputation all the organs

As to your soul seems good. Give me your hand, Of our own power: what think you of it? I'll privily away: I love the people, Escal. If any in Vienna be of worth

But do not like to stage me to their eyes : To undergo such ample grace and honour,

Though it do well, I do not relish well
It is lord Angelo.

Their loud applause, and aves vehement,
Look where he comes.

Nor do I think the man of safe discretion,
That does affect it. Once more, fare you well.

Ang. The heavens give safety to your purposes !

ESCAL. Lead forth, and bring you back in

happiness! Ang. Always obedient to your grace's will,

DUKE. I thank

you well. [Erit. I come to know your pleasure.

Escal. I shall desire you, sir, to give me leave DUKE.


To have free speech with you ; and it concerns me There is a kind of character in thy life,

To look into the bottom of my place : That to the observer doth thy history

A power I have, but of what strength and nature Fully unfold. Thyself and thy belongings

I am not yet instructed. Are not thine own so proper, as to waste

Ang. "T'is so with me. Let us withdraw together, Thyself upon thy virtues, them* on thec.

And we may soon our satisfaction have Heaven doth with us as we with torches do,

Touching that point. Not light them for themselves; for if our virtues


I'll wait upon your honour. forth of us, 't were all alike

[Exeunt. As if we had them not. Spirits are not finely

But to fine issues ; por nature never lends
The smallest scruple of her excellence,
But, like a thrifty goddess, she determines

SCENE II.-A Street.
llerself ihe glory of a creditor,
Both thanks and use. But I do bend my speech

Enter Lucio and two Gentlemen.
To one that can my part in him advertise :
Hold, therefore.- Angelo,

Lucro. If the duke, with the other dukes, come In our remove be thou at full ourself ;

not to composition with the king of Hungary, why Mortality and mercy in Vienna

then, all the dukes fall


the king Live in thy tongue and heart: old Escalus,

1 GENT. Heaven grant us its peace, but not Though first in question, is thy secondary : the king of Hungary's ! Take thy commission.

(Giving it.

2 GENT. Amen. Ang. Now, good my lord,

Lucio. Thou concludest like the sanctimonious Let there be some more test made of

my metal, pirate, that went to sea with the Ten CommandBefore so noble and so great a figure

ments, but scraped one out of the table. Be stamp'd upon it.

2 GENT. Thou shalt not steal ? DUKE. No more evasion :

Lucio. Ay, that he razed. We have with a leaven'd and prepared choice 1 GENT. Why, 'twas a commandment to Proceeded to you ; therefore take your

honours. command the captain and all the rest from their Our haste from hence is of so quick condition, functions: they put forth to steal. There's not a That it prefers itself, and leaves unquestion'd soldier of us all, that, in the thanksgiving before Matters of needful value. We shall write to you, nicat, doth relish the petition well that prays for As time and our concernings shall importune, peace. llow it

with us; and do look to know

2 Gent. I never heard any soldier dislike it. What doth befall you here. So, fare you well : Lucio. I believe thee ; for I think thou nerer To the hopeful execution do I leave you

wast where grace was said. Of your commissions.

2 GENT, No? a dozen times at least. Ang.

Yet, give leave, my lord, 1 GENT. What, in metre? That we may bring you something on the way. Lucro. In any proportion or in any language. DUKE. My haste may not admit it ;

1 Gext. I think, or in any religion. Nor need you, on mine honour, have to do

Lucio. Ay, why not? Grace is grace, despite With any scruple: your scope is as mine own, of all controversy: as for example,-thou thyself So to enforce or qualify the laws

art a wicked villain, despite of all grace.

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(*) Old text, they.

& Use.] Use formerly signified interest of money.


1 GENT. Well, there went but a pair of shears thine own confession, learn to begin thy health ; between us.

but, whilst I live, forget to drink after thee. Lucio. I grant; as there may between the i Gent. I think I have done myself wrong, lists and the velvet : thou art the list.

have I not? 1 GENT. And thou the velvet : thou art good 2 GENT. Yes, that thou hast, whether thou art velvet ; thou’rt a three-piled piece, I warrant thee. tainted or free. I had as lief be a list of an English kersey, as be Lucio. Behold, behold, where madam Mitipiled, as thou art piled, for a French velvet. Do gation comes ! I speak feelingly now?

1 GENT. I have purchased as many diseases Lucio. I think thou dost; and, indeed, with under her roof, as come to—b most painful feeling of thy speech : I will out of 2 GENT. To what, I pray ?

a There went but a pair of shears between us.) An early published and established by the authority of Queen Elizabeth proverbia) saying to the effect, that there was little difference in 1564, the title directs that the Acts of Thanksgiving in Eating between them; they were both of a piece. “The thanksgiving" shall always be concluded by these short prayers."- Deus to which the same speaker refers just before as distasteful to servet Ecclesiam-Regem vel Reginam custodiat-Consiliarios every soldier, because it prays for peace, appears to have been ejus regat–Populum universum tueatur-et Pacem nobis donet overlooked by all the commentators. It is found in ancient perpetuam. Amen. rituals in the very words of the text, “ Heaven grant us its b I have purchased, &c.) This, in the old copies, forms part of peace.” And in a collection of devotions, entitled Preces Privatæ, Lucio's speech, though it obviously belongs to the first Gentleman VOL. II. 593


Lucio. Judge.

Pom. Groping for trouts in a peculiar river. 2 Gent. To three thousand dollars“ a year. Mrs. Ov. What, is there a maid with child by 1 Gent. Ay, and more.

him ? LUCIO. A French crown more.

Pom. No; but there's a woman with maid by 2 GENT. Thou art always figuring diseases him : you have not heard of the proclamation, in me; but thou art full of error,-I am sound. have you?

Lucio. Nay, not as one would say, healthy ; Mrs. Ov. What proclamation, man ? but so sound as things that are hollow : thy bones Pom. All houses in the suburbs of Vienna are hollow; impiety has made a feast of thee. must be plucked down.

Mrs. Ov. And what shall become of those in

the city ? Enter MISTRESS OVERDONE.

Pon. They shall stand for seed: they had gone

down too, but that a wise burgher put in for them. 1 GENT. How now! which of your hips has Mrs. Ov. But shall all our houses of resort in the most profound sciatica ?

the suburbs be pulled down ? Mrs. Ov. Well, well; there's one yonder Pom. To the ground, mistress. arrested and carried to prison, was worth five Mrs. Ov. Why, here's a change indeed in the thousand of you all.

commonwealth! What shall become of me? 2 GENT. Who's that, I

thee ?

Pom. Come; fear not you: good counsellors Mrs. Ov. Marry, sir, that’s Claudio ; signior lack no clients: though you change your place, Claudio.

you need not change your trade; I'll be your 1 GENT. Claudio to prison ! 't is not so. tapster still. Courage ! there will be pity taken Mrs. Ov. Nay, but I know, 'tis so: I saw him

on you : you that have worn your eyes almost out arrested ; saw him carried away; and, which is in the service, you will be considered. more, within these three days his head to be Mrs. Ov. What's to do here, Thomas Tapster ? chopped off.

let's withdraw. Lucio. But, after all this fooling, I would not Pom. Here comes signior Claudio, led by the have it so. Art thou sure of this ?

provost to prison ; and there's madam Juliet. MRS. Ov. I am too sure of it; and it is for

[Exeunt. getting madam Julietta with child.

Lucio. Believe this may be : he promised to meet me two hours since, and he was ever pre

Enter Provost, CLAUDIO, JULIET, and Officers. cise in promise-keeping. 2 GENT. Besides, you know, it draws something

CLAUD. Fellow, why dost thou show me thus near to the speech we had to such a purpose.

to the world? 1 Gent. But, most of all, agreeing with the

Bear me to prison, where I am committed. proclamation.

Prov. I do it not in evil disposition, Lucio. Away! let's go learn the truth of it.

But from lord Angelo by special charge. [Exeunt Lucio and Gentlemen.

Claud. Thus can the demi-god Authority MRS. Ov. Thus, what with the war, what with

Make us pay down for our offence by weight.the sweat, what with the gallows, and what with

The sword of heaven ;d on whom it will, it will; poverty, I am custom-shrunk.

On whom it will not, so; yet still ’t is just.


Enter POMPEY.(1)

Re-enter Lucio and Gentlemen.

How dow! what's the news with you ?

Pom. Yonder man is carried to prison.
Mrs. Ov. Well ; what has he done?
Pom. A woman.
Mrs. Ov. But what's his offence ?

Lucio. Why, how now, Claudio ! whence comes this restraint ? Claud. From too much liberty, my Lucio,


a To three thousand dollars a year.) The same sorry play on " dollar" and dolour occurs in “The Tempest," Act II. Sc. 1, and in “ King Lear,” Act II. Sc. 4.

b All houses in the suburbs, &c.] Some critics would read, “ All hawdy-houses,” &c., needlessly; for suburb houses," like " suburb wenches." were all "in an ill name."

c Enter Provost, &c.] This is marked in the folio as a new scene, but wrongly, as there is no change of locality. In the same text, too, Lucio and the two Gentlemen are set down as if entering

with the Provost, &c.; but this was only in accordance with the old stage practice of indicating at the beginning of a scene all the characters required to take part in it.

d The sword of heaven;] The old text reads, "The words of heaven;" but Claudio is apparently contrasting the capricious. ness of earthly punishments with the ever just award of Heaven. This ingenious and easy alteration was suggested by Dr. Roberts, of Eton.


with you.

As surfeit is the father of much fast,

Now puts the drowsy and neglected act So every scope by the immoderate use

Freshly on me:-'tis surely for a name. Turns to restraint. Our natures do pursue,

Lucio. I warrant it is; and thy head stands so Like rats that ravin down their proper bane, tickle on thy shoulders, that a milk-maid, if she A thirsty evil, and when we drink, we die. be in love, may sigh it off. Send after the duke,

Lucro. If I could speak so wisely under an and appeal to him. arrest, I would send for certain of my creditors : CLAUD. I have done so, but he's not to be and yet, to say the truth, I had as lief have the

found. foppery of freedom, as the morality* of imprison- | I prythee, Lucio, do me this kind service :ment.—What's thy offence, Claudio ?

This day my sister should the cloister enter, CLAUD. What but to speak of would offend And there receive her approbation : again.

Acquaint her with the danger of my state ; Lucro. What, is't murder ?

Implore her, in my voice, that she make friends CLAUD. No.

To the strict deputy ; bid herself assay him : Lucio. Lechery?

I have great hope in that ; for in her youth CLAUD. Call it so.

There is a prone and speechless dialect, Prov. Away, sir! you must go.

Such as moves men ; beside, she hath prosperous Claud. One word, good friend.-Lucio, a word

[Takes him aside. When she will play with reason and discourse, Lucio. A hundred, if they'll do you any good. And well she can persuade. Is lechery so looked after ?

Lucio. I pray she may: as well for the enCLAUD. Thus stands it with me :-upon a true couragement of the like, which else would stand contráct,

under grievous imposition, as for the enjoying of I got possession of Julietta's bed :

thy life, who I would be sorry should be thus You know the lady; she is fast my wife,

foolishly lost at a game of tick-tack. I'll to her. Save that we do the denunciation a lack

CLAUD. I thank you, good friend Lucio. Of outward order : this we came not to,

Lucio. Within two hours. Only for propagation of a dower


Come, officer; away! Remaining in the coffer of her friends,

From whom we thought it meet to hide our love
Till time had made them for us.(2) But it chances,
The stealth of our most mutual entertainment
With character too gross is writ on Juliet.

SCENE III.- A Monastery,
Lucio. With child, perhaps?
Unhappily, even so.

Enter DUKE and FRIAR Tuomas.
And the new deputy now for the duke,
Whether it be the fault and glimpse of newness, DUKE. No, holy father ; throw away that
Or whether that the body public be

thought; A horse whereon the governor doth ride,

Believe not that the dribbling dart of Love
Who, newly in the seat, that it


Can pierce a complete bosom. Why I desire He can command, lets it straight feel the spur ;

thee Whether the tyranny be in his place,

To give me secret harbour, hath a purpose Or in his eminence that fills it up,

More grave and wrinkled than the aims and ends I stagger in ;-but this new governor

Of burning youth. Awakes me all the enrolled penalties,


May your grace speak of it? Which have, like unscour'd armour, hung by the DUKE. My holy sir, none better knows than wall

you So long, that nineteen zodiacs have gone round, How I have ever lov'd the life remov'd; And none of them been worn ; and, for a name, And held in idle price to haunt assemblies,

(*) Old text, mortality. A Save that we do the denunciation lack, &c.) Denunciation here means neither more nor less than annunciation or pronunciation. In Todd's edition of Johnson's Dictionary, under Denunciation, an example is quoted from Hall's Cases of Conscience, which places this beyond question ;-"This publick and reiterated denunciation of banns before matrimony," &c. b

- for in her youth There is a prone and speechless dialect, &c.) The word prone, in the sixteenth century, bore more than one

meaning, which it has now lost. In its primitive sense it signifies bending forward, and metaphorically-to be much inclined to certain actions or passions ; but in the "Luorece," as Malone observes, Shakespeare uses it as equivalent to ardent, headstrong, &c. :

“O that prone lust should stain so pure a bed !" and again in “Cymbeline,"—"I never saw any one so prone," &c. In the lines we are now considering. however, the poet has obviously intended it to imply a power of bending or inclining another by the exertion of a strong yet silent personal influence.


Where youth, and cost, and witless bravery | The baby beats the nurse, and quite athwart keeps."

Goes all decorum. I have deliver'd to lord Angelo


It rested in your grace A man of stricture and firm abstinence

To unloose this tied-up justice when you pleas'd; My absolute power and place here in Vienna, And it in you more dreadful would have seem'd, And he supposes me travell’d to Poland ;

Than in lord Angelo. For so I have strew'd it in the common ear,


I do fear, too dreadful : And so it is receiv’d. Now, pious sir,

Sith ’t was my fault to give the people scope, You will demand of me why I do this?

’T would be my tyranny to strike and gall them Fri. T. Gladly, my lord.

[laws,– For what I bid them do: for we bid this be done, DUKE. We have strict statutes and most biting When evil deeds have their permissive pass, The needful bits and curbs to headstrong steeds,- And not the punishment. Therefore, indeed, my Which for these fourteen years we have let sleep it

father, Even like an o’ergrown lion in a cave,

I have on Angelo impos'd the office ; That

goes not out to prey. Now, as fond fathers, Who may, in the ambush of my name, strike home, Having bound up the threat’ning twigs of birch, And yet my nature never in the fight, Only to stick it in their children's sight

To do in slander. And to behold his sway, For terror, not to use, in time the rod

I will, as 't were a brother of your order, Becomes more mock’d, than fear'd; so our decrees, Visit both prince and people: therefore, I prythee, Dead to infliction, to themselves are dead,

Supply me with the habit, and instruct me And liberty plucks justice by the nose ;

How I may formally in person bear


(*) Old text, weedes. (1) Old text, slip. a Where

“ Till it in time become more," &c. Who may, in the ambush of my name, strike home, And yet my nature never in the fight,

and witless bravery keeps.] That is, where senseless ostentation dwells. And is added from the second folio. b Becomes-] The old text reads,

"in time the rod More mock'd, thau fear'd.” For becomes we are indebted to Pope, who, probably derived it from the corresponding passage in Davenant's “Law against Lovers," a piece made up from Measure for Measure" and "Much Ado about Nothing, "

To do in slander.]
So the old text, corruptly without doubt. Hanmer attempted to
obtain sense by reading, -

“Never in the sight,
To do it slander."
We should prefer, -

"And yet my nature never win the fight

To die in slander.'

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