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a From her shall read the perfect way of honour.--) Read, in this place is supposed by some editors to be a misprint for tread; but see note (c), p. 547, Vol. I.
b Nor shall this peace sleep with her: but as when, &c.] This
ai the following seventeen lines are generally conjectured to be an interpolation, made at some revisal of the play, after the accession of King James.
Shall star-like rise, as great in fame as she was, I thank ye all,—To you, my good lord mayor, And so stand fix’d: peace, plenty, love, truth, And you good brethren, I am much beholden; terror,
I have receivd much honour by your presence, That were the servants to his chosen infant, And ye shall find me thankful. Lead the way, Shall then be his, and like a vine grow to him;
lords ;Wherever the bright sun of heaven shall shine, Ye must all see the queen, and she must thank ye, His honour and the greatness of his name
She will be sick else. This day, no man think Shall be, and make new nations : he shall flourish, H’as business at his house ; for all shall stay: And, like a mountain cedar, reach his branches This little one shall make it holiday. [Ereunt. To all the plains about him :-our children's
'T is ten to one this play can never please And yet no day without a deed to crown it. All that are here: some come to take their ease, Would I had known no more ! but she must die, And sleep an act or two; but those, we fear, She must, the saints must have her,—yet a We've frighted with our trumpets ; so, 't is clear, virgin;
They'll say, 't is naught: others, to hear the city A most unspotted lily shall she pass
Abus'd extremely, and to cry,—that's witty ! To the ground, and all the world shall mourn her. Which we have not done neither: that, I fear, K. Hen. O lord archbishop,
All the expected good we're like to hear Thou hast made me now a man! never, before For this play at this time, is only in This happy child, did I get any thing :
The merciful construction of good women ; This oracle of comfort has so pleas'd me,
For such a one we show'd 'em; if they smile, That when I am in heaven I shall desire
And say, 't will do, I know, within a while To see what this child does, and praise my All the best men are ours; for 't is ill hap, Maker.—
If they hold when their ladies bid 'em clap.
“The destruction of our hero appeared inevitable, after the disastrous adventure of Goose-lane, where his twelve companions were ingloriously murdered: but to Sir Bevis, when armed with Morglay and mounted on Arundel, no. thing was wanting but a theatre sufficiently spacious for the display of his valour; and this he found in the Cheap, or market-place. He was beset by innumerable crowds; but Arundel, indignant at the insolence of the plebean assailants, by kicking on one side and biting on another, dispersed them in all directions to a distance of forty feet, while his master cut off the heads of all such as were driven, by the pressure of those behind, within reach of the terrible Morglay.
“In the mean time the news of the knight's distress was spread from mouth to mouth, and it was reported to Josyan that he was actually dead. After swooning with terror, she related the circumstance to her sons, and, blinded by fear, proposed an immediate retreat. But they answered that they were resolved to seek their father alive or dead, and, hastily requesting her benediction, collected four thousand knights, and departed at full speed from Putney.
“ Sir Guy bestrode a Rabyte *
That was mickle, and nought light,
"They crossed the river without opposition under cover of the night, and having set fire to Ludgate, which was closed against them, forced their way into the city, and proceeded in search of Sir Bevis. They found him un. touched by any wound, but quite exhausted by the fatigue of a battle, which had now lasted during great part of the day, and the whole of the night. Arundel, too, stood motionless, bathed to his fetlocks in blood, and surrounded by dead bodies. The day had just dawned, and a burgher of some note, well armed and mounted, made a blow at Sir Bevis, under which the hero drooped to his saddle-bows; but at the same instant Sir Guy rushed forward :
“ To that burgess a stroke he sent,
Through helm and hauberk down it went;
(1) SCENE I.-That Bevis was believ'd.] The reader unacquainted with the stupendous exploits of this hero, should consult the elegant “Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances,” by George Ellis, or the romance of “Sir Bevis of Hamptoun” itself, as printed for the Maitland Club, 1838. That belief in them demanded no ordinary degree of credulity may be surmised from the fol. lowing synopsis of his last great action :-“One day, whilst Sir Bovis and Josyan were taking the pleasures of the chase, they met a messenger dispatched to Saber by his good old wife, to announce that Edgar, king of England, had deprived their son Robert of all his estates, for the purpose of enriching a wicked favourite, Sir Bryant of Cornwall. Bevis, who had bestowed these estates on Saber, considered such an act as a personal insult, and determined to accompany his friend to England at the head of a formidable army. They landed in safety at Southampton, and marching rapidly towards London, encamped at Putney. Here Sir Bevis left his troops, together with Josyan, Saber, Terry, Guy, and Mile, and taking with him only twelve knights, repaired to the king, whom he found at Westminster, and, falling on his knees, humbly requested the restoration of his estates.
* Elgar, always inclined to peace, would have been glad to consent; but his steward, Sir Bryant, observed to him that Sir Bevis was a traitor, who trained up his horses in the habit of kicking out the brains of princes, and that he was still an outlaw, whose death it was the duty of all good subjects to procure by every possible device. The king, listening to this secret enemy, gave no answer, and Sir Bevis, with his attendants, took up their lodgings in the city to await his determination : but scarcely were they arrived at their inn, when they heard that a proclamation had been issued, enjoyning the citizens to shut their gates, to barricade every street, and to seize Sir Bevis alive or dead. The knight now found it necessary to provide for his defence. Having armed himself and his followers, he sallied forth in hopes of forcing his way out of the city before the measures of security should be complete ; but he immediately met the steward, Sir Bryant, at the head of two hundred soldiers
“ A stroke he set upon his crown,
That to the saddle he clave him down
(*) Then. (+) For certain truth.
(*) An Arabian horse, (8) Carbuncle.
“The fatigued and disheartened Sir Bevis inmediately recovered new life at the sight of his son's valour ; Arundel, too, resumed his wonted vivacity; and when Sir Mile, who rivalled his brother in gallantry, came up with the rest of the reinforcement, the discomfiture of the assailants was soon decided.
“ The blcod fell on that pavement
Right down to the Temple-bar it went;
“In short, sixty thousand men were slain in this battle ; after which Sir Bevis and his sons returned, crowned with victory, to their camp at Putney."
(2) SCENE IV.- Let the music knock it.] The particulars of this masqueradle were derived immediately from Cavendish's Life of Wolsey (of which, though it was not published for many years after Shakespeare's death, there were, in his time, many manuscript copies extant) or were taken at second-hand from Kolinshed :-“And when it pleased the king's majesty, for his recreation, to repair to the cardinal's house, as he did divers times in the year, at which time there wanted no preparations, or goodly furniture, with viands of the finest sort that might be provided for money or friendship. Such pleasures were then devised for the king's comfort and consolation, as might be invented, or by man's wit imagined. The banquets were set forth, with masks and mummeries, in so gorgeous a sort, and costly manner, that it was a heaven to behold. There wanted no dames, or damsels, meet or apt to dance with the maskers, or to garnish the place for the time, with other goodly disports. Then was there all kind of music and harmony set forth, with excellent voices both of men and children. I have seen the king suddenly come in thither in a mask, with a dozen of other maskers, all in garments like shepherds, made of fine cloth of gold and fine crimson satin paned, and caps of the same, with visors of good proportion of visnomy; their hairs, and beards, either of fine gold wire, or else of silver, and some being of black silk ; having sixteen torch-bearers, besides their drums, and other persons attending upon them, with visors, and clothed all in satin, of the same colours. And at his coming, and before he came into the hall, ye shall understand, that he came by water to the water gate, without any noise; where, against his coming, were laid charged many chambers, and at his landing, they were all shot off, which made such a rumble in the air, that it was like thunder. It made all the noblemen, lailies, and gentlewomen, to muse what it should mean coming so suddenly, they sitting quietly at a solemn banquet ; under this sort: First, ye shall perceive that the tables were set in the chamber of presence, banquet-wise covered, my Lorik Cardinal sitting under the cloth of estate, and there having his service all alone ; and then was there set a lady and a nobleman, or a gentleman and gentlewoman, throughout all the tables in the chamber on the one side, which were made and joined as it were but one table. All which order and device was done and devised by the Lord Sands, Lord Chamberlain to the king; and also by Sir Henry Guilford, Comptroller to the king. Then immediately after this great shot of guns, the cardinal desired the Lord Chamberlain and Comptroller, to look what this sudden sho, should mean, as though he knew nothing of the matter. They thereupon looking out of the windows into Thames, returned again, and showed him, that it seemed to them there should be some noblemen and strangers arrived at his bridge, as ambassadors from some foreign prince. With that, quoth the cardinal, “I shall desire you, because ye can speak French, to take the pains to down into the hall to encounter and to receive them, according to their estates, and to conduct them into this chamber, where they shall see us, and all these noble personages sitting merrily at our banquet, desiring them (1) SCENE I.-In all the rest show'd a most noble patience.] Shakespeare's account of the duke's behaviour during trial corresponds pretty closely with that of the Chronicles :--“ Shortlie after that the duke had beene indicted, he was arreigned in Westminster hall before the duke of Norffolke, being made by the kings letters patents high steward of England, to accomplish the high cause of appeale of the peere or peeres of the realme, and to discerne and iudge the cause of the peeres.".
to sit down with us, and to take part of our fare and pastime.' Then (they) went incontinent down into the hall, where they received them with twenty new torches, and conveyed them up into the chamber, with such a number of drums and fifes as I have seldom seen together, at one time in any masque.
At their arrival into the chamber, two and two together, they went directly before the cardinal where he sat, saluting him very reverently ; to whom the Lord Chamberlain for them said: “Sir, for as much as they be strangers, and can speak no English, they have desired me to declare unto your Grace thus; they, having understanding of this your triumphant banquet, where was assembled such a number of excellent fair dames, could do no less, under the supportation of your good grace, but to repair hither to view as well their incomparable beauty, as for to accompany them at mumchance and then after to dance with them, and so to have of them acquaintance. And, sir, they furthermore require of your Grace license to accomplish the cause of their repair.' To whom the cardinal answered, that he was very well contented they should so do. Then the maskers went first and saluted all the dames as they sat, and then returned to the most worthiest, and there opened a cup full of gold, with crowns, and other pieces of coin, to whom they set divers pieces to cast at. Thus in this manner perusing all the ladies and gentlewomen, and to some they lost, and of some they won. And thus done, they returned unto the cardinal, with great reverence, pouring down all the crowns in the cup, which was about two hundred crowns. 'At all,' quoth the cardinal, and so cast the dice, and won them all at a cast; whereat was great joy made. Then quoth the cardinal to my Lord Chamberlain, 'I pray you,' quoth he, 'show them that it seemeth me that there should be among them some noble man, whom I suppose to be much more worthy of honour to sit and occupy this room and place than I ; to whom I would most gladly, if I knew him, surrender my place according to my duty.' Then spake my Lord Chamberlain unto them in French, declaring my Lord Cardinal's mind, and they rounding him again in the ear, my Lord Chamberlain said to my Lord Cardinal, 'Sir, they confess,' quoth he, “that among them there is such a noble personage, whom, if your Grace can appoint him from the other, he is contented to disclose himself, and to accept your place most worthily.' With that the cardinal, taking a good advisement among them, at the last, quoth he, Me seemeth the gentleman with the black beard should be even he.' And with that he arose out of his chair, and offered the same to the gentleman in the black beard, with his cap in his band. The person to whom he offered then his chair was Sir Edward Neville, a comely knight of a goodly personage, that much more resembled the king's person in that mask, than any other. The king, hearing and perceiving the cardinal so deceiver in his estimation and choice, could not forbear laughing: but plucked down his visor, and Master Neville's also, and dashed out with such a pleasant countenance and cheer, that all noble estates there assembled, seeing the king to be there amongst them, rejoiced very much. The carlinal eftsoons desired his highness to take the place of estate. to whom the king answered, that he would go first and shift his apparel ; and so departed, and went straight into niy lord's bedchamber, where was a great tire made and prepared for him; and there new apparelled him with rich and princely garments. And in the time of the king's absence, the dishes of the banquet were clean taken up, and the tables spread again with new and sweet perfumid cloths; every man sitting still until the king and his maskers came in among them again, every man being newly apparelled. Then the king took his seat under the cloth of estate, commanding no man to remove, but sit still, as they did before. Then in came a new banquet before the king's majesty, and to all the rest through the tables, wherein, I suppose, were served two hundred dishes or above, of wondrous costly meats and derices, subtilly devised. Thus passed they forth the whole night with banqueting, dancing, and other triumphant devices, to the great comfort of the king, and pleasant regari of the nobility there assembled.”
The witnesses having been heard, “the lords went to councell a great while, and after tooke their places. Then said the duke of Norffolke to the duke of Suffolke ; What say you of sir Edward duke of Buckingham touching the high treasons! The duke of Suffolke answered ; He is giltie : and so said the marques and all the other earls and lords. Thus was this prince duke of Buckingham found giltie of high treason, by a duke, a marques, seven earles, and twelve barons. The duke was brought to the barre sore chating and swet marvellouslie; and after he had made his reverence, he paused a while. The duke of Nortfolke as judge said : Sir Edward, you have heard how you be indicted of high treason, you pleaded thereto not giltie, putting your selfe to the peeres of the realme, which have found you giltie. Then the duke of Norffolke wept and said : You shall be led to the kings prison, and there laid on a hardle, and so drawne to the place of execution, and there be hanged, cut downe alive, your members cut off and cast into the fire, your bowels burnt before you, your head smitten off, and your bodie quartered and divided at the kings will, and God have mercie on your soule, Amen.
“ The duke of Buckingham said, My lord of Norffolke, you have said as a traitor should be said unto, but I was never anie : but my lords I nothing maligne for that you have doone to me, but the eternall God forgive you my death, and I doo: I shall never sue to the king for life, how beit he is a gratious prince, and more grace may come from him than I desire. "I desire you my lords and all my fellowes to pray for me. Then was the edge of the axe turned towards him, and he led into a barge. Sir Thomas Lovell desired him to sit on the cushins and carpet ordeined for him. He said nay; for when I went to Westminster I was duke of Buckingham, now I am but Edward Bohune the most caitife of the world. Thus they landed at the Temple, where received him sir Nicholas Vawse and sir William Sands baronets, and led him through the citie, who desired ever the people to pray for him, of whome some wept and lamented, and said : This is the end of evill life, God forgive him, he was a proud prince, it is pitie that he behaved him so against his king and liege lord, whome God preserve. Thus about foure of the clocke he was brought as a cast man to the Tower.”— HOLINSHED, 1521.
was attending his coming to await upon him to Westminster Hall, as well noblemen and other worthy gentlemen, of his own family; thus passing forth with two great crosses of silver borne before him; with also two great pillars of silver, and his pursuivant at arms with a great mace of silver gilt. Then his gentlemen ushers cried, and said,
Oh, my lords and masters, on before ; make way for my Lord's Grace !' Thus passed he down from his chamber through the hall ; and when he came to the hall door, there was attendant for him his mule, trapped altogether in crimson velvet, and gilt stirrups. When he was mounted, with his cross bearers and pillar bearers, also upon great horses trapped with (fine) scarlet : Then marched he forward,” &c.
His ostentatious display of these emblems of ecclesiastical authority, though they are said to be strictly appropriate to the office of legate d latere, seems to have excited much ridicule and resentment. Roy, in his bitter invective against Cardinal Wolsey, entitled, Rede me, and be nott wrothe, thus speaks of them :
** Before hiin rydeth two prestes stronge :
And they beare two crosses ryght longe,
In their hondes, steade of a mace." And so, in the same spirit, Skelton, in his Speke, Parrot:“ Such polla xis and pyllers, such mulys (mules) trapte with
(4) SCENE IV.
no, nor even more, Upon this business, my appearance make
In any of their courts.) Here also the poet was indebted immediately, or through his customary authority, Holinshed, to Cavendish.
“ The court being thus furnished and ordered, the judges commanded the crier to proclaim silence; then was the judges' commission, which they had of the pope, published and read openly before all the audience there assembled. That done, the crier called the king, by the name of King Henry of England, come into the court, &c.' With that the king answered and said, 'Here, my lords !' Then he called also the queen, by the name of Katherine, Queen of England, come into the court, &c.' who made no answer to the same, but rose up incontinent out of her chair, where as she sat, and because she could not come directly to the king for the distance which severed them, she took pain to go about unto the king, kneeling down at his feet in the sight of all the court and assembly, to whom she said in effect, in broken English, as followeth:
“Sir,' quoth she, “I beseech you for all the loves that hath been between us, and for the love of God, let me have justice and right, take of me some pity and compassion, for I am a poor woman and a stranger born out of your dominion, I have here no assured friend, and much less indif. ferent counsel ; I fee to you as to the head of justice within this realm. Alas! Sir, wherein have I offended you, or what occasion of displeasure? Have I designed against your will and pleasure ; intending (as I perceive) to put me from you? I take God and all the world to witness, that I have been to you a true humble and obedient wife, ever conformable to your will and pleasure, that never said or did anything to the contrary thereof, being always well pleased and contented with all things wherein you had any delight or dalliance, whether it were in little or much ; I never grudged in word or countenance, or showed a visage or spark of discontentation. I loved all those whom ye loved only for your sake, whether I had cause or no; and whether they were my friends or my enemies. This twenty years I have been your true wife or more, and by me ye
(2) SCENE III.
to which title
Out of his grace he adds. ] “ The King gave good testymony of his love to this lady, creating her in one day Marquesse of Pembroke (that I may use the words of the patent) for the nobylity of her stocke, excellency of ner virtues and conditions, and other shewes of honesty and goodnesse worthyly to be commended in her). And giving her a patent for a 1000 pounds yerely to maynteyne this honor with. She was the first woman, I read, to have honor given to her and her heyres male."-Sir Roger TWISDEN'S MS. Note.
(3) SCENE IV.-Then two Gentlemen, bearing two great silver pillars.) In describing the pageantry of the Cardinal on state occasions, Cavendish tells us :-" And as soon as he was entered into his chamber of presence, where there